Wheat is a cereal of special importance in the world cereal production. Fusarium head blight is one of the most important diseases of wheat caused by phytopathogenic Fusarium species that significantly reduce wheat production. This disease reduces grain yield and quality and causes the presence of harmful mycotoxins. The purpose of this study is to test the effect of Fusarium infection on wheat quality parameters in two wheat varieties Alföld and Mv Karéj. The results showed that Fusarium infection was higher in 2021 (91.47% and 95.20%) compared to 2020 (44.33% and 40.27%) in the two wheat varieties used Alföld and Mv Karéj respectively. In Alföld, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on protein content, test weight, thousand kernel weight, gluten content and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas falling number was not affected. In Mv Karéj, Fusarium infection had a negative effect on test weight, thousand kernel weight, falling number and Zeleny sedimentation index, whereas protein content and gluten content were not affected. Although Fusarium infection reduced wheat quality, Mv Karéj showed a stable protein and gluten content whereas Alföld showed a stable falling number. Thus, Mv Karéj is more tolerant to Fusarium infection compared to Alföld.
The fungal genus Fusarium encompasses a diverse group of species responsible for synthesizing mycotoxins, particularly deoxynivalenol, fumonisin, and zearalenone and inducing Fusarium head blight in wheat. The research was undertaken over a period of two consecutive growing seasons (2020 and 2021) on the premises and facilities of the Hungarian University of Agriculture and Life Sciences (MATE). The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of growing season, nitrogen fertilization, and wheat variety on Fusarium infection as well as mycotoxin contamination in wheat kernel. Zearalenone was absent throughout the course of the two growing seasons, whereas deoxynivalenol was found solely in 2020. The findings demonstrate that nitrogen fertilization failed to exhibit a statistically significant impact on both Fusarium infection and mycotoxin production. The impact of wheat variety on Fusarium infection and deoxynivalenol was not found to be statistically significant. However, it exerted a significant effect on fumonisin production. The growing season exerted a statistically significant impact on the incidence of Fusarium infection and the ensuing contamination with mycotoxins, attributable to augmented precipitation levels in 2021 compared to 2020, specifically during the flowering period when the spike of wheat is highly susceptible to Fusarium infection.