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Consumption of dietary supplements (DS) has been showing a persistent, rapidly growing tendency all over the world. A new branch has been created on the borderline of food and pharmaceutical industries. It is a general tendency that the policy and regulation towards the products of this branch are lagging far behind the practice. This is an especially important problem with adolescents. To work out an efficient regulatory framework, we have to have an adequate picture on consumer behaviour and attitudes towards these products. Based on literature analysis of two focus group interviews, we have developed a motivational model on usage of DS, which has been tasted during a direct-question survey involving more than 500 respondents. Our results have proven that the consumption of DS is proliferated among young recreational athletes. One quarter of them consumes proteins, one tenth L-carnitine at least 2–3 times a week. The most important motivational factor is the improvement of sport performance. The level of confidence in these products is considerably influenced by peers and trainers. The propensity to underestimate the potentially adverse consequences of these products is high.

Restricted access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
E. Szabó
,
É. Gelencsér
,
E. Kovács
,
A. Jánosi
,
K. Takács
, and
E. Kiss

In our research we studied the occurrence of the main apple allergen coding gene-families (Mal d 1, Mal d 2, Mal d 3, Mal d 4) in 16 different and most preferably consumed apple varieties. After the DNA isolation by Wizard method the simple PCR reaction was used to examine the apple allergen-coding genes. To identify the presence of the four allergenic protein-coding genes two primer pairs were chosen. The presence of these allergens in most apple varieties could be confirmed. According to our results two varieties — Jonathan and Granny Smith — were found to contain the lowest amount of the coding genes of the allergenic apple proteins studied by us. Besides this, polymorph pattern was obtained by the use of Mal d 1 primer, which may lead to determine apple varieties with small amount of Mal d 1 allergens.The confirmation study of the presence of potential apple allergens by RNA and protein techniques is our plan in the near future.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
K. Berisha
,
H. Bytyçi
,
Zs. Mednyánszky
,
E. Kiss
, and
L. Simon-Sarkadi

Abstract

To our knowledge, there is a lack of information on the nutrient composition of Busha cattle milk with special regard to its amino acid and biogenic amine contents. The Busha cattle breed is known to be highly resistant to various diseases and well-adapted to the extensive breeding conditions of the Balkan Peninsula. Busha cow milk contains an average of 13.47% dry matter, 4.34% fat, 3.72 % protein, and 4.32% lactose. Significant differences were detected (P < 0.05) in the amino acid compositions of the milk of different Busha cattle strains of Kosovo. Glutamic acid, proline, leucine, aspartic acid, lysine, and valine represented 68% of the total amino acid content. Essential amino acids, branched-chain and sulphur-containing amino acids were found in substantial amounts in the milk samples. Among the biogenic amines, however, spermine (0.16 mg kg−1) and cadaverine (0.09 mg kg−1) were present in low concentrations. Due to these excellent qualities of the Busha cow milk, preservation of this cattle breed is of great importance. Developing sustainable and secured breeding and feeding programs for this endangered cattle breed of the Balkan Peninsula should also be a high priority.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Szilvia Bánvölgyi
,
Eszter Dusza
,
Fiina K. Namukwambi
,
István Kiss
,
Éva Stefanovits-Bányai
, and
Gyula Vatai

Abstract

Similarly to other industries wineries also increasingly attempt to minimize and utilize waste to protect our environment. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal parameters (temperature, solvent concentration, and time) of extracting total polyphenol content (TPC) from Tokaji Aszú marc using two different extraction solvents: ethanol–water and isopropanol–water (1:4 solid/liquid ratio). The extractions were achieved based on Central Composite Design with Response Surface Method (CCRD–RSM). The optimal extraction parameters in the case of ethanol–water solvent: 60 °C temperature, 59.5% ethanol concentration in solvent, 5 h. At these parameters the probable TPC concentration is 23966.2 uM GAE/L. The optimal extraction parameters in the case of isopropanol–water solvent: 60 °C temperature, 52% ethanol concentration in solvent, 5 h. At these parameters the probable TPC concentration is 7188.44 uM GAE/L. In both cases the binary solvent was better than the mono-solvent. Ethanol–water solvent was more efficient than the isopropanol–water solvent.

Open access
Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
K. Szentmihályi
,
G. A. Csiktusnádi-Kiss
,
Á. Keszler
,
L. Kótai
,
M. Candeaias
,
M. R. Bronze
,
L. V. Boas
,
E. Forgács
, and
I. Spaugner

ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry) was used to determine the element content of red wines. Development of the method involves various procedures of sample handling as well as repeatability and reproducibility measurements. Measurements were made for the following 16 elements: Al, B, Ba, Ca, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn. The relative standard deviation of repeatability ranged from 0.41% (potassium) to 27% (cadmium) and that of reproducibility varied between 0.73% (boron) to 52% (cobalt). Recovery of the elements was determined by standard addition with results ranging from 90.6% (phosphorus) to 116.2% (boron). After that, 15 red wine samples were measured. Significant differences were found in the Al, B, Ca, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Na, P, Sr and Zn (P<0.001) concentration of wine samples. Correlation studies revealed parallel changes in phosphorus-potassium, phosphorus-magnesium and zinc-manganese concentrations (r=0.857, 0.875, 0.838). According to principal component analysis, measurements of zinc-, sodium-, boron-, copper- and strontium content gave almost the same results as obtained with 16 different elements. According to a two dimensional non-linear map of absolute values of principal component analysis, wines from Szekszárd and Eger could be differentiated, whereas the analysis of wines from Villány, the Mátra Mountains and Lake Balaton showed overlapping results.

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