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Short-term effects of orally administered plant lectins, with special reference to the Phaseolus vulgaris agglutinin (phytohaemagglutinin, PHA), were studied in growing rats.  The orally administered PHA elicited a dose-dependent accumulation of liquor with elevated pH in the proximal small intestine. Although the concentration of a-amylase activity did not change, total a-amylase activity slightly, but significantly increased in the gut. When a panel of plant lectins with different carbohydrate binding specificities was tested at the dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, most of them stimulated the secretion of liquor, but the total a-amylase activity was increased only by PHA, ConA or WGA.

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Purpose

This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of CO2 laser-assisted sclerectomy surgery (CLASS) in eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) showing progression in spite of maximal local antiglaucomatous therapy.

Materials and methods

Patients with progressive POAG received CLASS treatment. We performed CLASS on 15 eyes (eight males and seven females). The primary endpoint was the change in the intraocular pressure (IOP), and additionally best spectacle-corrected visual acuity (BSCVA), C/D ratio (cup-to-disc), as well as use of antiglaucomatous drops were also investigated. Following the preoperative assessment, measurements were performed at 6-month follow-up.

Results

The average preoperative IOP was 26.13 ± 6.79 mmHg that dropped to 9.57 ± 4.09 mmHg at 1 day. IOP was stable at 1 month, 3 months, and 6 months. The BSCVA decreased to the 1-day and 1-week follow-up but returned to its original value to the 1-month check-up. Preoperatively, all patients were on maximal antiglaucoma drop therapy, after CLASS none of the patients needed antiglaucomatous treatment at 1 month. However, at 3 months, one of them needed antiglaucoma drops. C/D ratio showed non-significant changes.

Conclusions

CLASS procedure was found to be effective in decreasing IOP in POAG patients whose IOP was not compensated with maximal antiglaucomatous local therapy; patients needed significantly less local therapy following the CO2 laser surgery.

Open access

A panel of orally administered lectins (100 mg/kg b.w.) of different binding specificities was tested for suppression of voluntary food consumption in prefasted rats. PHA isolectins (Phaseolus vulgaris) and RPA-I (Robinia pseudoacacia) were found to exert a marked and significant effect, but two other gut-binding lectins, i.e. SBA (Glycine max) and WGA (Triticum vulgare) and several non-binding lectins were ineffective. In cannulated rats PHA infused into the duodenum induced food suppression, i.e. binding of the lectin to the mouth or stomach was unnecessary. Suppression of food consumption lasted through the whole nocturnal feeding period, control (BSA) and experimental (PHA) curves of cumulative food consumption showed a V-like divergence. Suppression by PHA or RPA-I showed very similar time courses, but a long-lasting inhibition of gastric emptying was only observed in the RPA-treated animals. Intraperitoneally administered lectins suppressed food consumption much more effectively than the oral ones, whereas Galanthus nivalis agglutinin (GNA) had little or no effect. It is concluded that lectins can be used as effective tools for the modulation of food consumption and gastric emptying in experimental animals.

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After oral administration several gut-binding lectins induce accumulation of liquor and amylase in the proximal small intestine (2). Orally administered Phaseolus vulgaris phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) was used to study the mediation of these effects in rats. The regulation of amylase secretion clearly differed from that of the liquor. The amylase activity was of pancreatic origin, in agreement with the known cholecystokinin-releasing effect of PHA. It appears that CCK exerts its effect both directly and by facilitating neural stimulatory pathways. Intestinal secretion was identified as the source of the liquor, without a contribution by other secretions. It was mediated by a local cholinergic reflex with the involvement of both muscarinic and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors. It is speculated that the observed enteric reflex may enable the gut to transport secreted antibacterial peptides or secretory antibodies from the crypts to adherent bacteria on adjacent villi.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Zs. Mészáros
,
K. Kiss
,
M. Szmodis
,
M. Zsidegh
,
M. Mavroudes
, and
János Mészáros

The aim of the present longitudinal study of four years was to analyse differences in growth patterns, age-related changes in body fat and physical performance in schoolchildren taking part either in normal or in elevated level physical education at school.Nine data collection sessions were carried out between 2002 and 2006 in 18 schools. The sample consisted of 521 non-athletic volunteer boys (PE=116, contrast = 405).The inter-group differences between mean height, body weight, body mass index, relative body fat content, mean scores in 30 m dash, 400 m run, and standing long jump as well as the patterns of change with age were analysed in this comparison. Between-observation differences were tested by repeated measures ANOVA. In case of a significant F-test Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used. Age dependence was also studied by linear regression analysis.The between-group differences in mean height were not significant, but the slope of height increase with age was significantly greater in the PE boys. The PE boys were significantly lighter through all the nine observations and the slope of age-related weight increase was statistically faster in the group of contrast subjects. Both the BMI means and percent body fat means were consistently and significantly greater in the contrast group and faster increases were found in the group of the less active boys. The mean physical performances of the PE boys were consistently and significantly better. Their slopes of increase were statistically different.

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Long-range repeated-measure sample differences in body dimensions, body composition and physical performance help to describe the changes in a population’s lifestyle. The aim of our study was to analyse such changes in longitudinal studies repeated after a 25-year interval. Data collections repeated every six months for the periods 1977–1981 (n=152) and 2002–2006 (n=158) were carried out in nonathletic boys aged between 6.51 and 11.50 years from the same districts of Budapest. Means for height, body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, and distance covered during a running endurance test, as well as the slopes of the changes were compared. The children of the second series of studies were significantly taller and heavier, had more depot fat and showed poorer cardio-respiratory endurance than their peers 25 years before. The increases with age in weight, BMI and depot fat were steeper in the second series. The significant differences that developed in anthropometric traits and physical performance during these 25 years are regarded as indirect evidence for how severely the average physical condition had declined, as well as how health risks of the schoolchildren had increased.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
K. Kiss
,
Zs Mészáros
,
M. Mavroudes
,
M. Szmodis
,
M. Zsidegh
,
N. Ng
, and
János Mészáros

The aim of this comparison was to evaluate the nutritional status and cardio-respiratory fitness of future health professionals, namely university students engaged in medical studies. It was assumed that the lifestyle of such students would be reflected by healthy body composition and fitness performance indicators. Altogether 1,560 volunteer, female, university students of three institutions were investigated in 2008. Height, body weight, BMI, body fat content and 800 m run test means were compared.The height, weight and BMI means did not differ significantly but PE students recorded the lowest mean body fat (18.34% vs. 24.37 and 25.12%) and shortest mean running time (203 s vs. 239 and 243 s). Among the medical (11.23%) and technical university students (19.95%) statistically the same prevalence of obesity was observed.High body fat content and low running performance of medical students were in contrast with our hypothesis. Their prevalence of overweight/obesity and low fitness did not differ from that of relatively sedentary technical university students and the average Hungarian young adult population. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the necessity and positive effects of regular physical activity if they do not apply them to their own lifestyle.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Osváth
,
Zs Mészáros
,
Sz Tóth
,
K. Kiss
,
M. Mavroudes
,
N. Ng
, and
János Mészáros

Fatness generally has a negative influence on the performance of a variety of motor and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The aim of this comparison was to analyse the effects of three grades of obesity on somatic growth, physical performance and oxygen consumption during exercise. Volunteer boys with definitely different grades of obesity were recruited for the comparison. In the group of mildly obese children (G1; n=23) BMI ranged between 24 kg.m −2 and 26 kg.m −2 ; and individual percent body fat was between 33% and 33.5%. In the case of moderate obesity (G2; n=23) BMI ranged between 26.5 kg.m −2 and 28.5 kg.m −2 ; and percent body fat was between 35% and 36%. In the extremely obese group (G3; n=20) BMI was greater than 31 kg.m −2 ; percent body fat was greater than 37.5%. Oxygen consumption during the 1,200 m run-test was measured by VIMEX-ST-type (USA) telemetric equipment.The greatest absolute aerobic power referred to the G3 boys, and the lowest oxygen consumption was characteristic of the mildly obese group. The very high differences between the body mass means resulted in a more marked inter-group variability in mean relative oxygen uptake.The predicted relative fat and high body fat content observed on the trunk, and the elevated level of resting blood pressure may indicate serious risks for the development of cardio-respiratory and metabolic disease. The very low oxygen consumption relative to body mass and poor physical performance are expected consequences of physiologic and environmental influences on the obese population.

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The goal of the study was to find a proper technique to fix tendon grafts into an INSTRON loading machine. From 8 human cadavers, 40 grafts were collected. We removed the bone-patella tendon-bone grafts, the semitendinosus and gracilis tendons, the quadriceps tendon-bone grafts, the Achilles tendons, and the peroneus longus tendons from each lower extremity. We tested the tendon grafts with five different types of fixation devices: surgical thread (Premicron 3), general mounting clamp, wire mesh, cement fixation, and a modified clamp for an INSTRON loading machine. The mean failure load in case of surgical thread fixation was (381N ± 26N). The results with the general clamp were (527N ± 45N). The wire meshes were more promising (750N ± 21N), but did not reach the outcomes we desired. Easy slippages of the ends of the tendons from the cement encasements were observed (253N ± 18N). We then began to use Shi’s clamp that could produce 977N ± 416N peak force. We combined Shi’s clamp with freezing of the graft and the rupture of the tendon itself demonstrated an average force of 2198 N ± 773N. We determined that our modified frozen clamp fixed the specimens against high tensile forces.

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