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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Zs. Mészáros
,
K. Kiss
,
M. Szmodis
,
M. Zsidegh
,
M. Mavroudes
, and
János Mészáros

The aim of the present longitudinal study of four years was to analyse differences in growth patterns, age-related changes in body fat and physical performance in schoolchildren taking part either in normal or in elevated level physical education at school.Nine data collection sessions were carried out between 2002 and 2006 in 18 schools. The sample consisted of 521 non-athletic volunteer boys (PE=116, contrast = 405).The inter-group differences between mean height, body weight, body mass index, relative body fat content, mean scores in 30 m dash, 400 m run, and standing long jump as well as the patterns of change with age were analysed in this comparison. Between-observation differences were tested by repeated measures ANOVA. In case of a significant F-test Tukey’s post-hoc tests were used. Age dependence was also studied by linear regression analysis.The between-group differences in mean height were not significant, but the slope of height increase with age was significantly greater in the PE boys. The PE boys were significantly lighter through all the nine observations and the slope of age-related weight increase was statistically faster in the group of contrast subjects. Both the BMI means and percent body fat means were consistently and significantly greater in the contrast group and faster increases were found in the group of the less active boys. The mean physical performances of the PE boys were consistently and significantly better. Their slopes of increase were statistically different.

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Long-range repeated-measure sample differences in body dimensions, body composition and physical performance help to describe the changes in a population’s lifestyle. The aim of our study was to analyse such changes in longitudinal studies repeated after a 25-year interval. Data collections repeated every six months for the periods 1977–1981 (n=152) and 2002–2006 (n=158) were carried out in nonathletic boys aged between 6.51 and 11.50 years from the same districts of Budapest. Means for height, body mass, BMI, body fat percentage, and distance covered during a running endurance test, as well as the slopes of the changes were compared. The children of the second series of studies were significantly taller and heavier, had more depot fat and showed poorer cardio-respiratory endurance than their peers 25 years before. The increases with age in weight, BMI and depot fat were steeper in the second series. The significant differences that developed in anthropometric traits and physical performance during these 25 years are regarded as indirect evidence for how severely the average physical condition had declined, as well as how health risks of the schoolchildren had increased.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
K. Kiss
,
Zs Mészáros
,
M. Mavroudes
,
M. Szmodis
,
M. Zsidegh
,
N. Ng
, and
János Mészáros

The aim of this comparison was to evaluate the nutritional status and cardio-respiratory fitness of future health professionals, namely university students engaged in medical studies. It was assumed that the lifestyle of such students would be reflected by healthy body composition and fitness performance indicators. Altogether 1,560 volunteer, female, university students of three institutions were investigated in 2008. Height, body weight, BMI, body fat content and 800 m run test means were compared.The height, weight and BMI means did not differ significantly but PE students recorded the lowest mean body fat (18.34% vs. 24.37 and 25.12%) and shortest mean running time (203 s vs. 239 and 243 s). Among the medical (11.23%) and technical university students (19.95%) statistically the same prevalence of obesity was observed.High body fat content and low running performance of medical students were in contrast with our hypothesis. Their prevalence of overweight/obesity and low fitness did not differ from that of relatively sedentary technical university students and the average Hungarian young adult population. Thus, it is questionable how young health professionals will promote the necessity and positive effects of regular physical activity if they do not apply them to their own lifestyle.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
P. Osváth
,
Zs Mészáros
,
Sz Tóth
,
K. Kiss
,
M. Mavroudes
,
N. Ng
, and
János Mészáros

Fatness generally has a negative influence on the performance of a variety of motor and cardiorespiratory fitness tests. The aim of this comparison was to analyse the effects of three grades of obesity on somatic growth, physical performance and oxygen consumption during exercise. Volunteer boys with definitely different grades of obesity were recruited for the comparison. In the group of mildly obese children (G1; n=23) BMI ranged between 24 kg.m −2 and 26 kg.m −2 ; and individual percent body fat was between 33% and 33.5%. In the case of moderate obesity (G2; n=23) BMI ranged between 26.5 kg.m −2 and 28.5 kg.m −2 ; and percent body fat was between 35% and 36%. In the extremely obese group (G3; n=20) BMI was greater than 31 kg.m −2 ; percent body fat was greater than 37.5%. Oxygen consumption during the 1,200 m run-test was measured by VIMEX-ST-type (USA) telemetric equipment.The greatest absolute aerobic power referred to the G3 boys, and the lowest oxygen consumption was characteristic of the mildly obese group. The very high differences between the body mass means resulted in a more marked inter-group variability in mean relative oxygen uptake.The predicted relative fat and high body fat content observed on the trunk, and the elevated level of resting blood pressure may indicate serious risks for the development of cardio-respiratory and metabolic disease. The very low oxygen consumption relative to body mass and poor physical performance are expected consequences of physiologic and environmental influences on the obese population.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors:
Krisztina Rusai
,
A. Prokai
,
C. Juanxing
,
K. Meszaros
,
B. Szalay
,
K. Pásti
,
V. Müller
,
U. Heemann
,
J. Lutz
,
T. Tulassay
, and
A. Szabo

Previous experimental data suggest that steroids might have protective effects during hypoxic/ischemic injury of various organs. In this study, the association between dexamethason (Dexa) treatment and the anti-apoptotic SGK-1 was tested in ischemic renal injury. In vitro, HK-2 cells were exposed to 24 h hypoxia, and the effect of Dexa incubation on SGK-1 expression / activation and on cell death was studied. In an in vivo rat model of unilateral renal IR, animals were treated with Dexa, and serum renal function parameters, tissue injury and SGK-1 expression and localization were examined after different reperfusion times (2 h, 4 h and 24 h). Dexa at a dose of 2 mg/L exerted a protective effect on cell survival assessed by LDH release and vital staining paralleled by marked up-regulation of SGK-1. In rats, 2 mg/kg Dexa treatment 24 h prior to ischemia resulted in less severe tissue injury and ameliorated urea nitrogen levels 24 h after reperfusion. Furthermore, SGK-1 expression and phosphorylation were higher in Dexa animals demonstrated by Western blot and immunofluorescence technique. Our results provide novel data on the signalling mechanism of Dexa under hypoxia / ischemia and further support that Dexa emerges as an attractive pharmacological agent for the prevention of ischemic injury.

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