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Abstract  

We give some conditions under which an R-endomorphism f fixing an essential ideal I of a right near-ring R must be the identity R-automorphism on RR. As a consequence of the results obtained we generalize the theorem of [1].

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Abstract  

Mössbauer spectra of alkali tris(maleato) ferrates(III), i.e., M3[Fe(C2H2C2O4)3nH2O [M=Li, Na, K, Cs] at 300 K display a doublet. The Mössbauer parameters indicate these complexes to be high spin with octahedral symmetry. The isomer shift shows a decreasing trend with the increase in electronegativity/polarizing power of the substituent cation (Li+, Na+, K+, Cs+). A linear correlation between isomer shift values and the (Fe−O) stretching frequencies has also been observed.

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Metoprolol tartrate is rapidly absorbed from both gastric and intestinal regions, after oral administration. To retard the release rate of the metoprolol tartrate, microspheres were prepared with varying concentrations of a mixture containing ethylcellulose and polyethylene glycol-6000. The prepared microspheres were evaluated for various physicochemical characteristics and in vitro drug release. The percent yield of microspheres was in the range of 75.2–87.3%. The particle size of microspheres was found to be in the range of 73.2–85.5 μm. Fourier transform-infrared spectral analysis and differential scanning calorimetry concluded the absence of any interaction between the drug and the carriers. The release time profile of metoprolol tartrate from microspheres in 0.1 N hydrochloric acid solution was to the extent of 33.4–60.2%. The complete release of metoprolol tartrate occurred from MPT-3 and MPT-4 in phosphate buffer solution (pH 7.4) within 8 and 7 h, respectively, whereas the incomplete release (72.3%) occurred from MPT-1. Nearly, the complete release (98.5%) of metoprolol occurred from MPT-2 in 10 h. Formulation MPT-2 would be a preferred formulation. The release of metoprolol involves diffusion rate limited (R 2 = 0.9865) as a mechanism from drug release. The prepared microspheres of metoprolol tartrate eliminate the need for multiple dosing and provide patient compliance.

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Autoimmune hepatitis is defined as chronic liver disease of unknown aetiology with aberrant autoreactivity and genetic predisposition. It is characterized by female predominance, circulating auto-antibodies, hypergammaglobulinaemia and association with HLA DR3 and HLA DR4 [1]. Differential diagnosis includes chronic viral hepatitis, drug induced hepatitis and alcohol. We present two patients with autoimmune hepatitis representing the two extremes of hepatic involvement in this condition. The first patient is a young lady who was diagnosed with autoimmune chronic hepatitis. The second patient, on the other hand, is an elderly gentleman who presented to us with autoimmune hepatitis-related decompensated cirrhosis of liver.

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Introduction: The aim of this study is to compare Knodell and HAI scores in patients with wild type and precore/core promoter mutant CHB to see if there is any difference in severity of liver injury between these two types of HBV. Methods: We did percutaneous liver biopsies of 155 CHB patients. 102 (65.8%) of them were infected wild type HBV and the rest 53 (34.2%) were infected with precore/core promoter mutant CHB. Results: 11/53 (20.8%) patients with precore/core promoter mutant CHB had moderate to severe CH (HAI score 8–18). In contrast, moderate to severe CH was seen in 19/102 (18.6%) patients with wild type CHB. Fibrosis score was >2 in 15/53 (28.3%) precore/core promoter mutant CHB as opposed to 20/102 (19.6%) patients with wild type CHB. Conclusion: The study shows that precore/core promoter mutant HBV produces more severe histologic liver disease compared to wild type HBV.

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A novel HPTLC method has been developed for the estimation of glabridin in Licorice rhizome and its Unani polyherbal formulation (Qurs-e-Gul). Separation was achieved on silica using toluene, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate in equal ratios. A compact, well resolved peak of glabridin with R F value 0.56 ± 0.02 was observed. Calibration curve revealed a good linear relationship with r 2 value of 0.993 between the peak area and concentration in the range of 25–500 ng spot−1. The proposed method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The stability assessment was carried out by studying degradation of glabridin stressed by acid, base, oxidation, thermal, and humidity. Photodegradation was also carried out after keeping the drug in sunlight, dark, and in UV lights. The method proposed can be used for routine determination of glabridin in crude drugs and in herbal formulations containing Licorice as one of the ingredients, for quality control as well as for stability testing with high precision, accuracy and a wide range of linearity.

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A new rapid, simple, economical, and environment-friendly reversed- phase high-performance thin-layer chromatography (RPHPTLC) method has been established for the simultaneous determination of glycyrrhizin and glabridin in Glycyrrhiza glabra roots, rhizomes and selected herbal formulations. The method was carried out using RP-18 silica gel 60 F254S HPTLC glass plates and methanol–water (7:3 v/v) as the mobile phase. The developed plates were scanned and quantified densitometrically at 256 and 233 nm for glycyrrhizin and glabridin, respectively. Glycyrrhizin and glabridin peaks from G. glabra roots and rhizomes and herbal formulations were identified by comparing their single spots at R F = 0.63 ± 0.02 and R F = 0.28 ± 0.01, respectively. Linear regression analysis revealed a good linear relationship between the peak areas and the amounts of glycyrrhizin and glabridin in the ranges of 1000–7000 and 100–700 ng band−1, respectively. The method was validated, in accordance with the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines for precision, accuracy, and robustness. The proposed method will be useful to determine the therapeutic doses of glycyrrhizin and glabridin in herbal formulations as well as in bulk drug.

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The quarry blasting is one of the artificial explosions that produces stresses in the ground and may have a great effect on the near foundations. The estimation of the stress level either in the weathering layer or the bedrock is necessary for the safety of the existing buildings near the quarries. Cement Companies has been in operation since 1956 close to Helwan City, Egypt. Since then, new buildings and new communities were established in the area such as the City of 15th of May. For the safety of these buildings, detailed and continuous monitoring of the peak particle velocity of the quarry blasting operations was carried out since January 1997 till September 2000. The maximum values of the stress level for the weathering layer has been found smaller than that for the bedrock for both of the P- and S-waves. The damage observed in the buildings close to the quarry blasting operations, indicates that these stress levels are high.

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