Authors:Bernadette Kun, Zsofia K. Takacs, Mara J. Richman, Mark D. Griffiths, and Zsolt Demetrovics
During the past three decades, research interest in work addiction has increased significantly. Most definitions concerning work addiction have specifically contained personality-related elements. However, the results of empirical studies concerning personality and work addiction are both few and mixed. The aim of the present study was to explore the role of personality in the background of work addiction.
The present study systematically reviewed and empirically carried out a meta-analysis on all the published studies examining the association between personality variables and work addiction (n = 28).
The results of the meta-analysis indicated that perfectionism, global and performance-based self-esteem, and negative affect had the strongest and most robust associations as personality risk factors of work addiction. Among the Big Five traits, extraversion, conscientiousness, and intellect/imaginations showed positive relationships with work addiction. However, these associations were weak.
Based on the meta-analysis, personality appears to explain only a small amount of the variance of work addiction and further studies are needed to assess the interaction between individual and environmental factors.
Authors:Petra Havas, Szilárd Kun, Izabell Perger-Mészáros, Judit M. Rezessy-Szabó, and Quang D. Nguyen
Growth and metabolic activity of several new, human origin isolates of Bifidobacterium strains were investigated. All tested bifidobacteria strains were grown well on the native soymilk medium without any additional nutrients. The fermentation processes cultured with initial cell concentrations in 105–107 cfu/ml resulted in 108 cfu/ml after 8–12 h of incubation in soymilk, and were kept viable up to the end of fermentation (48 h). Volumetric productivities of B. bifidum B3.2, B. bifidum B7.1 and B. breve B9.14 were 1.6×1010 cfu/L.h, 4.5×1010 cfu/L.h and 7.6×109 cfu/L.h, respectively, whereas these values of B. lactis Bb-12 and B. longum Bb-46 probiotic strains were 2.7×109 cfu/L.h and 1.0×1010 cfu/L.h. The α-galactosidase activities were also detected in the intracellular fraction of the disrupted cells. Productions of lactic and acetic acids were in the range of 23–60 mmol/L and 2.4–5.6 mmol/L, respectively. Molar ratios of acetate to lactate in all tested strains varied from 0.05–0.1 that are very promising for further technological development of probiotic fermented soy-based food products.
Authors:Wei-Hsin Lu, Kun-Hua Lee, Chih-Hung Ko, Ray C. Hsiao, Huei-Fan Hu, and Cheng-Fang Yen
To examine the relationship between borderline personality symptoms and Internet addiction as well as the mediating role of mental health problems between them.
A total of 500 college students from Taiwan were recruited and assessed for symptoms of Internet addiction using the Chen Internet Addiction Scale, borderline personality symptoms using the Taiwanese version of the Borderline Symptom List and mental health problems using four subscales from the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised Scale (interpersonal sensitivity, depression, anxiety, and hostility). Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to test our hypothesis that borderline personality symptoms are associated with the severity of Internet addiction directly and also through the mediation of mental health problems.
SEM analysis revealed that all paths in the hypothesized model were significant, indicating that borderline personality symptoms were directly related to the severity of Internet addiction as well as indirectly related to the severity of Internet addiction by increasing the severity of mental health problems.
Borderline personality symptoms and mental health problems should be taken into consideration when designing intervention programs for Internet addiction.
Authors:Eszter Kotyuk, Anna Magi, Andrea Eisinger, Orsolya Király, Andrea Vereczkei, Csaba Barta, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Székely, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, Judit Farkas, Bernadette Kun, Rajendra D. Badgaiyan, Róbert Urbán, Kenneth Blum, and Zsolt Demetrovics
Background and aims
Changes in the nomenclature of addictions suggest a significant shift in the conceptualization of addictions, where non-substance related behaviors can also be classified as addictions. A large amount of data provides empirical evidence that there are overlaps of different types of addictive behaviors in etiology, phenomenology, and in the underlying psychological and biological mechanisms. Our aim was to investigate the co-occurrences of a wide range of substance use and behavioral addictions.
The present epidemiological analysis was carried out as part of the Psychological and Genetic Factors of the Addictive Behaviors (PGA) Study, where data were collected from 3,003 adolescents and young adults (42.6% males; mean age 21 years). Addictions to psychoactive substances and behaviors were rigorously assessed.
Data is provided on lifetime occurrences of the assessed substance uses, their co-occurrences, the prevalence estimates of specific behavioral addictions, and co-occurrences of different substance use and potentially addictive behaviors. Associations were found between (i) smoking and problematic Internet use, exercising, eating disorders, and gambling (ii) alcohol consumption and problematic Internet use, problematic online gaming, gambling, and eating disorders, and (iii) cannabis use and problematic online gaming and gambling.
The results suggest a large overlap between the occurrence of these addictions and behaviors and underlies the importance of investigating the possible common psychological, genetic and neural pathways. These data further support concepts such as the Reward Deficiency Syndrome and the component model of addictions that propose a common phenomenological and etiological background of different addictive and related behaviors.
Authors:Máté Kapitány-Fövény, Róbert Urbán, Gábor Varga, Marc N. Potenza, Mark D. Griffiths, Anna Szekely, Borbála Paksi, Bernadette Kun, Judit Farkas, Gyöngyi Kökönyei, and Zsolt Demetrovics
Background and aims
Due to its important role in both healthy groups and those with physical, mental and behavioral disorders, impulsivity is a widely researched construct. Among various self-report questionnaires of impulsivity, the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is arguably the most frequently used measure. Despite its international use, inconsistencies in the suggested factor structure of its latest version, the BIS-11, have been observed repeatedly in different samples. The goal of the present study was therefore to test the factor structure of the BIS-11 in several samples.
Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were conducted on two representative samples of Hungarian adults (N = 2,457; N = 2,040) and a college sample (N = 765).
Analyses did not confirm the original model of the measure in any of the samples. Based on explorative factor analyses, an alternative three-factor model (cognitive impulsivity; behavioral impulsivity; and impatience/restlessness) of the Barratt Impulsiveness Scale is suggested. The pattern of the associations between the three factors and aggression, exercise, smoking, alcohol use, and psychological distress supports the construct validity of this new model.
The new measurement model of impulsivity was confirmed in two independent samples. However, it requires further cross-cultural validation to clarify the content of self-reported impulsivity in both clinical and nonclinical samples.