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Abstract

Potential functional food bakery products were developed and characterized based on White Lupin (Lupinus albus cv. Nelly) flour. Analytical properties of the seeds resemble to previously described Lupinus species, with significantly high protein content (45%). The high protein and dietetic fiber content of the seeds makes Lupin flour suitable to develop potential functional food products with high nutritional values. Results of the development of sweet biscuits and salty crackers enriched with Lupin flour are presented. Sensory evaluation of the bakery products was carried out by 15 panelists using the nine points hedonic scale. Heat stability of White Lupin proteins were investigated by gel-electrophoretic analysis, White Lupin proteins are quite stable at 140°C, after 35 min heating the biscuits still contain 69% of the original amount of proteins. Baking conditions were optimized also based on gel-electrophoretic experiments, the optimal baking time was 30 min at 140°C. Gluten-free Lupin-based biscuits and crackers were produced by completely omitting wheat flour from the recipes.

Open access
Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
László Ujfaludi
,
Kálmán Rajkai
,
József Vida
,
Csaba Szombathy
, and
Gábor Zoller

A Michelson-féle (optikai) interferométer mikrohullámú változatát széles körben használják különböző anyagok dielektromos állandójának meghatározására. Jelen tanulmányban a berendezést talajnedvesség-mérésre alkalmaztuk. A tájékozódó mérések során kiderült, hogy a mintáról visszavert hullám az interferenciaképre és ezáltal a mérésekre zavarólag hat. A visszavert hullám okozta hibát a minta megdöntésével küszöböltük ki. Ferde sugármenetes mérési elrendezést alakítottunk ki, amellyel a mérési eredmények megbízhatóak és reprodukálhatóak lettek. 3,1 mm vastag víztelített homokréteg kiszáradását végig követve, a Topp-féle talaj ε-értékekhez közeli dielektromos állandókat kaptunk. Megállapítottuk, hogy a mikrohullámú hullámhossz-tartományban a vizsgálható talajréteg-vastagság korlátozott. Közvetlen sugármenetes (nem interferometriás) összeállításban a mintán átmenő és az arról reflektálódó hullámenergia meghatározását is elvégeztük. Az eredmények a fizikai elvárásokkal összhangban vannak. A módszer alkalmazása szempontjából bíztató, hogy a mérések szerint a reflektált energia és a víztartalom kapcsolata közel lineáris. Összefoglalóan megállapítható, hogy: az interferometriás mérési elrendezés alkalmas a talaj víztartalmának meghatározására. Alkalmazása azonban kis rétegvastagságokra korlátozódik; a közvetlen sugármenetes reflexiómérés is alkalmasnak látszik a talaj víztartalmának mérésére. Ebben a mérési megoldásban nincsenek talajréteg-vastagsági korlátok. Mindkét mérési eljárás gyakorlati, kiváltképp terepi alkalmazása további kutató-fejlesztő munkát igényel.

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Abstract

Minimal processing technologies, like High Hydrostatic Pressure (HHP), heat treatments at low temperatures have an increasing role in food industry. Eggs are considered as functional foods, but for high retention of biological active compounds adequate minimal processing technologies are needed during preservation procedure. In our study, liquid egg yolk (LEY) was examined to meet consumer's expectations.

Combinations of pasteurization (57–63 °C, 5–7 min) and HHP (350–400 MPa, 5 min) were used to provide microbiological stability of LEY. After these treatments samples were examined for mesophyll aerobes and Enterobacteriaceae cell counts (using Nutrient agar an incubation of 30 °C, 48 h) and viscosity attributes (Anton Paar MCR 92).

Our results show that microbiological stability is significantly influenced by the different parameters of heat treatments and HHP. Heat treatment effected at least 3 orders of magnitude decrease in cell count. Viscosity attributes point out that higher pressure of HHP have a stronger effect on viscosity than the temperature of pasteurization.

The results point out a great opportunity for industrial use of minimal processing technologies for LEY. Microbiological safety is strongly influenced by the order of treatments, but viscosity may be independent from the order of the treatments.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Emna Ayari
,
Csaba Németh
,
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
Adrienn Tóth
,
Dávid Láng
, and
László Friedrich

Abstract

Starting from mechanical revolution, each day new methods and new equipment have emerged. Today, the Ultra Heat Treatment (UHT) is one of the important technologies that permits to the industry to reduce processing time while maintaining the same quality of the products. Egg and egg products are known as heat-sensitive products, so the UHT enables us to preserve their qualities after a heat treatment.

Our aim is to study the effect of UHT treatment (approximately 67 °C for 190 s) on the Liquid Egg Yolk (LEY). For twenty-one days, the color and the apparent viscosity were measured every seven days, we also studied the damage of protein using DSC (Differential Scanning Calorimetry).

Comparing the two graphs of DSC, the denaturation of protein is distinct. The endothermic peak decreased. This could be seen also on the rheological curves. The apparent viscosity is diminished from 231 mPa.s on the 1st day of storage to 224 mPa.s on 21st day. However, the treated LEY could be stored for longer period than the raw LEY.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
Csaba Németh
,
Anna Visy
,
Adrienn Tóth
,
László Ferenc Friedrich
, and
Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke

Abstract

Eggs are commonly used in the food industry because of their excellent nutrient value and also for their coagulating, foaming, emulsifying, colouring and flavouring properties. Manufacturers substitute shell eggs with processed egg products, such as liquid whole egg, liquid egg yolk or albumin. They have a shelf life of a few weeks, but freezing can increase it to 1 year. However, freezing causes gelation in case of egg yolk. This process is highly dependent on the conditions of freezing and thawing.

In our study, raw liquid egg yolk was frozen and stored for 14 days at −18 °C. On days 1, 7 and 14 samples were thawed by two different methods. Denaturation temperature and enthalpy were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. Besides, rheological properties were examined at 20 °C, Herschel–Bulkley model was fitted to flow curves of the examined samples. The dry matter content was also recorded during the experiment. Two-way ANOVA was used to analyse data.

The results of the study showed that method of thawing had no significant effect on calorimetric and rheological properties and dry matter content. In contrast, freezing and frozen storage had a significant effect on denaturation enthalpy and rheological properties.

Open access
Progress in Agricultural Engineering Sciences
Authors:
Karina Ilona Hidas
,
Csaba Németh
,
Lien Phuong Le Nguyen
,
Anna Visy
,
Adrienn Tóth
,
László Friedrich
, and
Ildikó Csilla Nyulas-Zeke

Abstract

Freezing can enhance the storage time of liquid egg products, but egg yolk undergoes an irreversible textural and structural change when it is cooled to –6 °C. In this study, the effects of different salt concentrations on the physical properties of frozen-thawed egg yolk were investigated.

The pasteurised liquid egg yolk (LEY) was treated with 4, 5, and 6% of NaCl before freezing and it was stored at –18 °C for 4 weeks. The colour, pH, and rheological characteristics (firmness, consistency, cohesiveness, and index of viscosity) of yolk samples were evaluated before and after freezing.

Salt treatment resulted in preventing gelation, with decreasing firmness, consistency and viscosity compared to control samples. The pH of all yolk samples increased during frozen storage. The lightness value decreased in treated samples and increased in the control sample after freezing.

The results indicated that the applied salt concentrations could inhibit protein aggregation of LEY induced by freezing during the storage period. At least 5% salt concentration could reduce effectively the changes in rheological properties.

Open access