The expected effects of the introduction of landfill tax on waste management are hardly predictable. There are many objective reasons for that. Probably the most important one is that the primary aim of the pollution related taxes is to increase the price of the given product or service with internalizing the environmental benefits. Consequently, this is an incentive for altering the consumption patterns, which may contribute to decrease the negative effect on the environment as well. However, waste management is a very special activity as its purchase is compulsory and a waste management fee is levied on users of the service.In our research we are investigating what are the environmental benefits of different waste management systems. What are the costs and incomes in these systems, and how a flat landfill tax will influence these costs and incomes relative to the external benefits.
Nowadays, the membrane filtration technique is a commonly used method for the separation of whey. The most significant limitation of membrane applications is fouling, which causes flux decline. During this work, regenerated cellulose membranes covered by TiO2-nanoparticles were investigated and applied to the separation of whey solution. Experiments were carried out in a dead-end ultrafiltration cell, and the changes in filtration parameters and the photocatalytic effects of the UV irradiated TiO2 modified membrane surface on the membrane fouling were examined. Our results showed that the water flux decreased with increasing TiO2 layer thickness, but the retention of turbidity and of COD increased. After separation, the membrane surface was cleaned by UV irradiation by means of photocatalytic oxidation. It was found that the original flux was recoverable, while the retention of the membrane decreased after cleaning.