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EU’s Common Agricultural Policy encourages maintaining agricultural production in less favored areas (LFA) to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. Recently the delimitation of LFAs is suggested to be carried out using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated by European Commission’s Joint Research Center (JRC) and its operational implementation comes under member state competence. This process requires the existence of an adequate national spatial soil information system with appropriate data structure and spatial resolution as well as a proper methodology for its analysis. Hungary possesses an appropriate, nationwide, 1:25,000 scale legacy dataset originating from the national soil mapping project, which was digitally processed and developed into the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS). In the paper we present how DKSIS was applied for the identification and delineation of areas in Hungary concerned by the common biophysical criteria related to soil. Soil data linked to soil profiles and SMUs were jointly spatially analyzed for the compilation of nationwide digital maps displaying spatial distribution of specific limiting factors.

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Commercial sodium caseinate isolate (SCI) was hydrolysed with either protease Subtilisina carlsberg - Alcalase 2.4 FG (purchased from Novo Nordisk), pronase from Streptomyces griseus, and papain EC 3.4.22.2 (both from Sigma) in a two-step process to determine the changes in the immunoreactivity of a-, ß- and ?-casein. Enzymatic hydrolysis of SCI was performed by pH-stat method. Hydrolysates were analysed using IEF, SDS-PAGE, 2D electrophoresis, FPLC-gel permeation chromatography. Immunoreactive properties of peptide fractions separated from the hydrolysates by FPLC were determined using dot-immunobinding and ELISA methods. The two-step process was observed to be effective in reduction of casein fractions immunoreactivity, however, allergenic epitopes were still present in all peptide fractions.

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The authors’ aim is to reveal the reflection of Hungarian political and economic transformation in the public health nutrition during the last two and a half decades. Results of the four representative, nationwide dietary surveys completed in this period have been analysed for macro-, micronutrient intakes and overweight/obesity. The food consumption-related vital statistics provided by Hungarian Central Statistical Office were also analysed and compared. There are certain signs of favourable improvements: slight decrease of energy intake in females, growing share of plant protein, less saturated, more polyunsaturated fatty acid intake, less sugar. These findings are in parallel with some positive general statistical issues: the extension of life expectancy, lesser acute myocardial infarction, atherosclerosis and stomach cancer mortality, more vegetables and fruit, lesser lard, more oil consumption. On the other hand, there are several detrimental nutritional issues that influence the health status of Hungarian population: still high energy, fat and cholesterol intake, low complex carbohydrates, too much sodium (salt), insufficiencies in some vitamin, macro- and microelements intake. The number of overweight/obese people takes up fairly high level. The surveys somewhat revealed the role of nutrition in the health status of population and now a particle of possibility for its improvement is available

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Related to ongoing (re)forestation in the Great Hungarian Plain the short-term influence of changing land cover was studied on the grains of skeletal sandy soils. In three sampling areas with forest and grassy/arable control plots, the 0.1–0.2 mm grain size fraction of samples taken every 20 cm from the 0–100 cm sandy soil layer (totalling 22,509 grains) were separated and described with optical mineralogical microscope. In order to distinguish sand grains of forest-covered and control areas (grassland/arable land), the results of mineralogical and morphological observations were compared. It was revealed that the amount of feldspar grains is 8–9 times less than the amount of the quartz ones. The increase in the quartz/feldspar (q/fp) ratio is tied to the “consumption” of feldspars: the intense consumption of potassium by trees. Under the forest-covered fields, the number of in-situ crushed grains increased. Grains with etch pits are frequent in samples from the grasslands (except in Hajdúsámson). In samples of forest-covered areas a greatly increased number of brown grains with limonite and/or humus films were observed. The gained results can be useful in proving earlier land use in forested fields.

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Vitamin D2 is essential for the human body and mushrooms are proved to be one of the best sources of it. In our experiment biologically active, pre-harvest white and cream type button mushrooms and oyster mushroom were treated with UVB light in order to increase their vitamin D2 level, by transforming their natural ergosterol content into vitamin D2. UVB lamps (operating on 312 nm) and six time periods of irradiation (15 to 90 min) were used. After three consecutive days of treatments the yield were measured and samples were taken for vitamin D2 analysis. Data showed considerable increase in vitamin D2 levels at every time period in each cultivar.

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Abstract

The aim of this research was to assess the consumer habits of lactose sensitive persons in case of lactose-free products and their other shopping aspects for development of new, dairy-based lactose-free products. The research was based on face-to-face questionnaire survey, and those who declared to be lactose sensitive were analysed. Among them, only half of the women (49.3%) and one third of the men (34.6%) were medically proven lactose sensitive, so more than half of the respondents declared themselves affected on the basis of self-diagnosis. Our results show that reliably regular customers of lactose-free products are women and persons with medical diagnosis, high educational degree, and under the age of 30. The lactose-free consumer group prefers the following product features: lactose-free label; rich in calcium, vitamins, and fibre, and free of carbohydrate, sugar, and gluten. Only two-thirds of lactose sensitive customers (66.7%) consume lactose-free products regularly, so it can be assumed that the level of knowledge of this disease, its treatment, and the importance of lactose-free dairy products among these persons is insufficient. This could be solved with education, advertisement, and other information opportunities.

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In 2009 Hungarian Food Safety Office (HFSO) performed a countrywide representative dietary survey to obtain food consumption data for quantitative food safety risk assessment utilizable in the field of public health nutrition as well. The consumption of foodstuffs, daily energy- and nutrient intakes, nutritional habits and dietary supplement usage of Hungarian population was assessed. The complex system has included three-day dietary record and a food consumption frequency questionnaire. Some anthropometric parameters were also self-recorded. According to the body mass index, a considerable proportion of both the 31–60 years old males (69%) and females (46%) were overweight or obese. The energy intake of the Hungarian adult population is slightly exceeds the recommendation. The intake of proteins is satisfactory in general. The average intake of total fats is very high (36.1–38.9 energy percent), and the fatty acid composition — mostly the ratio of n-6/n-3 fatty acids — is unfavourable, but the fatty acid pattern regarding saturated- (SFA), mono- (MUFA) and polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acid ratio shows favourable tendency. The proportion of complex carbohydrates within the intake of energy providing macronutrients is far lower than the optimal level, but it is a positive finding that added sugar intake is below the outmost recommendation. The average daily cholesterol intake is high (males: 469 mg, females: 335 mg), whilst the dietary fibre intake is lower than the recommended. The article provides data on alcohol, caffeine and fibre consumption, too.

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The fourth countrywide nutrition survey was initiated and co-ordinated by the Hungarian Food Safety Office jointly to the yearly Household Budget Survey of Hungarian Central Statistical Office in 2009. The dietary assessment was performed by trained interviewers and skilled dieticians using a complex questionnaire system, containing three-day diary, short food frequency questionnaire and questions on taking of dietary supplements and on prevalence of food allergy. The data records were processed and the questionnaires were validated, the results obtained on the micronutrient intakes of the adult population are shown in this article. From fat soluble vitamins, the average daily intakes of vitamins A and D were lower than the national recommendations in case of both genders, meaning low intake for around 60% (in case of retinol) and 80–90% (in case of calciferols) of adults. The intakes of some water soluble vitamins belonging to B group, vitamin C and folates were low as well. Regarding the macroelements, the most important health problem on population level is the extremely high sodium load of the inhabitants, combined with unfavourable sodium/potassium ratio. The average daily calcium intake of every age and gender group was far below the recommended value. The average daily intake of iron was low for the 50% of adult females. The article also provides data on frequency of food supplement taking habits of inhabitants and of self-reported food allergy.

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The feasibility of NIR spectroscopy for determining chemical composition of goose fatty liver was studied. The spectra of 50 fresh, homogenized liver samples (ether extract content EE=53.2, SD=4.87%) were taken between 1100 and 2500 nm in reflectance mode, then the chemical composition and the fatty acid profile was measured (gas chromatography). Calibration equations were developed using modified partial least-squares regression. The R 2 value in estimation of DM, CP and total EE were 0.72, 0.63 and 0.81, respectively. For the major fatty acids (oleic, palmitic and stearic acid, 51.4, 25.8 and 15.5% of total) the R² values were 0.94, 0.93 and 0.16. The estimation of the total saturated fatty acid (SAT) proportion and the so-called unsaturation index (UI) value was effective (R 2 =0.81 and 0.79, respectively). The paper demonstrates the usefulness of the NIRS method as a fast and solvent free alternative of liver qualification. For practical purposes a larger number of fatty liver samples are needed.

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