EU’s Common Agricultural Policy encourages maintaining agricultural production in less favored areas (LFA) to secure both stable production and income to farmers and to protect the environment. Recently the delimitation of LFAs is suggested to be carried out using common biophysical diagnostic criteria on low soil productivity and poor climate conditions all over Europe. The criterion system was elaborated by European Commission’s Joint Research Center (JRC) and its operational implementation comes under member state competence. This process requires the existence of an adequate national spatial soil information system with appropriate data structure and spatial resolution as well as a proper methodology for its analysis. Hungary possesses an appropriate, nationwide, 1:25,000 scale legacy dataset originating from the national soil mapping project, which was digitally processed and developed into the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS). In the paper we present how DKSIS was applied for the identification and delineation of areas in Hungary concerned by the common biophysical criteria related to soil. Soil data linked to soil profiles and SMUs were jointly spatially analyzed for the compilation of nationwide digital maps displaying spatial distribution of specific limiting factors.
An attempt is outlined for the compilation of an integrated and harmonized stratified soil physical database serving hydrologic modeling, as the basis of estimating soil hydraulic parameters in the unsaturated zone. Due to the appropriate spatial and thematic resolution and data processing status, the Digital Kreybig Soil Information System (DKSIS) and Hungarian Agrogeological Database (HAD) were chosen as pedological and agrogeological data sources for describing the soil physical properties in the unsaturated zone. The DKSIS contains legacy soil data (as hy, pH, salt, OM, CaCO
content, etc.) in finely stratified resolution (3–5 soil layers within 1.5–2.0 m), but lacks particle size data. HAD has a coarser stratification (8–15 layers within 8–10 m) with detailed particle size data. The five-cleft FAO texture classification can serve as an interface in their joint application. The particle size and hy data pairs from the existing Hungarian Soil Monitoring (TIM) network made it possible to define the relation between FAO texture class vs.
value, and based on the HYPRES database each FAO texture class can be characterized by typical Mualem-van Genuchten parameter sets (Wösten
et al., 1999). The compiled, harmonized database characterizes the distinguished soil and sediment layers – with a thickness of at least 10 cm – for a 690 km
large model area, describing their thickness and texture classes to the depth of the permanent groundwater level, in every single square kilometer cell of the model area. The compiled database is indispensable in the model simulation based analysis of regional water management problems like drought, flood and inland inundation.
Water content of dry sausages may decrease due to improper ripening and storage as well. As a consequence, an outer crust appears on the surface of the products. The aim of the industry is either to eliminate the presence of outer crust, or decrease its occurrence. The thickness of outer crust can be estimated by non-destructive ultrasound technique. As the propagation time and attenuation of ultrasonic waves vary in the materials with different water content, the thickness of outer crust and the normal texture, respectively, can be estimated on the basis of these characteristics. The propagation and attenuation values are typical for the given layers. Thus, by measuring total attenuation and total width of the product, the thickness of outer crust can be calculated by means of the velocity and attenuation coefficients of ultrasonic waves. Results of this non-destructive measurement may support the proper adjustment of ripening and storage parameters such as temperature and humidity.
Thermal and HHP treatments were compared. We established that the applied HHP treatments reduced the total cell count more significantly than thermal treatments. For example, the 10 min 600 MPa/10 min HHP treatment was equivalent to about 10 min thermal treatment at 70 °C. This combination of temperature and time is not used in the pasteurisation practice of the dairy industry. The various thermal treatments reduce the phosphatase enzyme activity to between one-third and one-hundredth of the original activity. The HHP treatments yielded similar results. Six hundred MPa pressure caused 10 to 70% decrease in the enzyme activity, while 700 MPa pressure led to a decrease of one log cycle.In the second year we tried to investigate the kinetics of the effect of HHP treatment. The 5, 10, 20, 40 min holding times were systematically applied in the range of 400 to 700 MPa. According to the results, 600 and 700 MPa HHP treatments effectively assured a decrease in the total cell count and the alkaline phosphatase enzyme activity. No organoleptic changes occurred.
In the experiments pork loin and beef sirloin were treated by pressures of 100 to 600 MPa by 100 MPa steps for 5 min. Colour changes of samples and the changes of proteins were investigated. The latter were examined with isoelectric focusing and SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. We found that myoglobin behaved completely differently in case of the two different species. Myoglobin has mostly lost its native state at 300 MPa pressure in case of pork, but the beef myoglobin could remain native even up to 500 MPa. The treatment at 300 MPa or higher pressure values caused almost complete aggregation and denaturation in case of pork and beef proteins. The results of SDS-PAGE and the colour measurement confirmed this finding.
Bovine blood samples were treated with high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) to examine the changes that may occur in the blood related to its colour, microbiological characteristics, protein denaturation, and dynamic viscosity. Pressure treatments were carried out from 100 to 600 MPa in 100 MPa scale up, with 5 min holding time. The blood samples were treated with anticoagulant (EDTA) to eliminate the possible measurement distorting effects. We found that 2 log reduction in the microbial load could be achieved with a pressure treatment above 400 MPa. According to the protein denaturation measurements (DSC), blood proteins were resistant to pressure treatment, even at 300–400 MPa a substantial part of proteins remained in native state. The colour of the samples got darker with the rising pressure, however, visible colour change was observed only above 400 MPa. It can be established, that the HHP treatment was suitable to increase the microbiological stability of blood, without significantly changing its techno-functional properties.