The problem of converting measured intensities into mass concentrations arises from the fact that the measured intensity of a characteristic X-ray line of an element or compound depends not only on the mass concentration of that element or compound but also on the nature and abundance of the other constituents of the specimen. In this work the empirical coefficient method which comprises both absorption and enhancement effects of each element on each other element by parameters independent of mass concentrations was used for correction of enhancement effects from antimony and praseodymium on bromine in two groups of samples. The results of analysis of bromine shows a relative error of not more than ±4%.
14 MeV neutron activation of ternary copper silver selenide gives rise to a predominant activity from the 0.511 MeV annihilation peak from the three elements when -ray spectrometry is used. To overcome the interference problems, X-ray spectrometry was applied to the simultaneous nondestructive determination of silver and selenium, after which copper can be determined by -ray spectrometry. The results of analysis show a relative error not higher than ±5%, when the samples were diluted with H3BO3 /90%/ to minimize the interelement effects.
The intensity of characteristic X-rays emitted from one element may be reduced by partial absorption by other elements in the matrix, or alternatively it is enhanced by their presence. In this work the enhancement effect of antimony on bromine, cadmium and selenium are given. The dependence of the specific activity of each element /Cd, Br and Se/ on the ratio of the weight of Sb to that of the element is given, when the concentration of Sb is not very low /-5%/.
The fundamental parameters method (FPM) for X-ray fluorescence (XRF) has been applied to determine the MN, Cr and Sr components of aluminium wires and sheets. The results are compared with neutron activation analysis (NAA) and atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS). The FPM does not require standards, however, it requires the spectra of the pure element for the concentration determination.
14 MeV neutron activation followed by X-ray spectrometry was applied to the simultaneous nondestructive determination of cadmium, antimony and bromine, utilizing praseodymium as an internal standard. The results of analysis show a relative error not higher than ±5%, when the samples were diluted with H3BO3
-5% to minimize the interelement effects.
A CAMAC system was installed for pulse height analysis and correction of counting losses due to the dead-time of a multichannel analyzer and the pulse pile-up. A computer program was developed to control the whole system, and to collect and store data in both conventional and cyclic measurement modes.
The empirical coefficient method represents the absorption and enhancement effect of each element on each other by parameters independent of mass concentrations. This method is used together with the internal standard method for the determination of cadmium, bromine and selenium by 14 MeV neutron activation followed by X-ray spectrometry. The results of analysis show a relative error not more than ±5%.
An activation analytical method has been developed for determining Cd, Ag, Sb, Se, Br by 14 MeV neutron-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy using Pr as an internal standard. A good correlation was obtained between the activity ratio, RAo and the weight ratio, RW. Results are given after correction for self-absorption and without correction. The results are comparable in both cases when dilution with H3BO3 (90%) is applied. The elements listed can be determined at minor concentrations (0.01%) with a relative error not more than ±5%.
A method is described for the simultaneous determination of cadmium, antimony and praseodymium by 14-MeV neutron activation analysis based on characteristic X-ray spectrometry. The results of analysis show a relative error not higher than ±5%, when diluted with H3BO3 /90%/ and utilizing the internal standard method to minimize the interelement effects.
Authors:Zs. Szántó, L. Papp, J. Kónya, N. Nagy, and Zs. Lengyel
Studies were initiated to investigate the effect of the delivery mode of45Ca ions through guinea pig skin in vivo. Direct current (DC), pulsating current (PC) and a Bernard current form, the “courtes
periodes” current profile (CP) were applied with the same current density (0.16 mA/cm2) and for the same duration (30 minutes). The45Ca ions were delivered from a Ca-bentonite patch radiolabeled with45Ca (a natural mineral clay rich in calcium, 50 mgCa/g). The total quantity of applied bentonite was 1.5g×10 days=15g.45Ca was counted in different biological samples of the animals. The delivery of45Ca ions into the body (systemic effect) is the highest when CP current is applied (6.87±0.95·10−12g/samples). The local effect appears to be more effective in case of DC current mode (5.89±0.12·10−12g/0.5g bone). Total calcium measurements proved that the result of transdermal radiocalcium delivery is not only an ion exchange
process at the surface of the bone but a deposition of calcium ions into the hydroxiapatite matrix (the net calcium introduction,
which represent the difference between the total calcium into the treated bone and total calcium into untreated bone varied
from 15.52±2.42·10−3g/0.5g bone to 44.30±3.50·10−3g/0.5g bone). The results suggest that iontophoresis could be used to accumulate calcium into different target tissues using
the appropriate current system.