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Clinical observations of Babesia canis infection in 63 dogs during a 1-year period are summarised, demonstrating the pathogenicity of the Babesia strain endemic in Hungary. Most patients had babesiosis in the spring and autumn, correlating with the seasonal activity of ticks. Male animals appeared in higher numbers, probably due to an overrepresentation of outdoor dogs. Uncomplicated babesiosis was diagnosed in 32 cases. The disease affected dogs of any age in this study. Symptoms were similar to those published from other parts of the world: lethargy, fever, splenomegaly, pallor, icterus, haemoglobinuria and presence of ticks were the most common observations. Thrombocytopenia, lymphopenia and neutropenia were frequent haemogram changes. Imidocarb appeared to be highly effective in eliminating the Babesia infection. Thirty-one animals demonstrated babesiosis with complications. Most Rottweilers (7/9) developed complicated disease. Old age was a risk factor for multiple complications. Multiple organ manifestations had poor prognosis. Hepatopathy (44%), pancreatitis (33%), acute renal failure (ARF; 31%) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC; 24%) were frequent complications, while immune-mediated haemolytic anaemia (IMHA; 10%), acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS; 6%) and cerebral babesiosis (3%) were rarely observed. There was a significant difference between the mean age of dogs having uncomplicated disease, babesiosis with a single complication and babesiosis with multiple complications (3.4, 4.8 and 8.6 years, respectively, p < 0.001). The recovery rate (78, 68 and 25%, respectively, p = 0.005) and mortality rate (3, 21 and 67%, respectively, p < 0.001) also tended to differ significantly in these groups. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and DIC are two possible pathways leading to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) in babesiosis. DIC was found to predict MODS more sensitively in this study than SIRS: there were 6 animals developing MODS out of 11 identified with DIC, while only 5 dogs developed MODS out of 22 having SIRS.

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Depression, which is associated with an increased incidence of vascular events, frequently occurs following stroke. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitory drugs (SSRIs) as antidepressants, are well tolerated, and also seem to be effective in post-stroke depression. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the SSRIs citalopram and fluoxetine, on the corticocerebral blood flow (cCBF) in rabbits with unilateral carotid occlusion induced cerebral ischemia. The cCBF was measured by the hydrogen clearance technique. After determination of the mean baseline cCBF, the effects of individual doses (0.1, 0.3 and 1 mg/kg) of citalopram or fluoxetine on the cCBF were investigated. Following the induction of an impaired cCBF, the changes in cCBF after drug treatments in this condition were likewise measured. The mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) and the heart rate (HR) from the electrocardiogram (ECG) were also determined. Neither citalopram nor fluoxetine influenced the cCBF in the control group. Fluoxetine improved the cCBF only very slightly in the ischemic animals. In contrast, all the doses of citalopram exerted pronounced and dose-dependent cCBF-increasing effects in the animals with unilateral carotid occlusion (maximal mean ΔCBF: 10, 16 and 27 ml/min/100 g tissue). The HR was decreased in both groups. Only citalopram treatment led to a slight MABP-decreasing effect. Besides enhancement of the serotonergic transmission in the brain, the cCBF-increasing effect of citalopram under ischemic conditions may be of benefit in post-stroke and vascular depression.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: K. Szakszon, Z. L. Veres, M. Boros, S. Sz. Kiss, B. Nagy, E. Bálega, á. Papp, E. Németh, I. Pataki, and T. Szabó

Abstract

We report a case of an infant with spontaneous chylothorax due to the congenital malformation of a small lymph vessel of the chest wall. Conservative therapy with omitting long-chain fatty acids from the diet, fat-free nutrition, total parenteral nutrition and intravenous somatostatin did not result in the decrease of pleural effusion. Thoracic surgical intervention performing thoracic duct ligation and using fibrin sealants was applied after 10 days of unsuccessful conservative therapy, and resulted in the complete recovery of the patient. Our experience support the already existing observations, that in cases where the daily loss of chyle exceeds 100 ml per age years and/or lasts longer than 2 weeks, early surgical intervention is recommended.

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