Cyclodextrins are widely used in various fields including food industry. In this review, their role in high carbohydrate-containing, starchy foods are reviewed and discussed. Both the effects as functional ingredients affecting the structural properties of starch and as active ingredients slowing down starch digestion and, as a consequence, decreasing the glycaemic index of starchy foods are overviewed without considering the traditional applications as carriers and stabilisers of aroma and flavour, essential oils, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and other bioactive components to enrich foods, even if they are carbohydrate foods. The effect on starch metabolism is explained by the structural transformations caused by cyclodextrins on starch amylose and amylopectin. Several examples are shown how the technological and sensorial properties of bread, rice products, pasta, and other starchy foods are modified by cyclodextrin supplementation, and how the digestibility is changed resulting in reduced glycaemic and insulinaemic effects.
Authors:Barbara Barna, A. Szász, T. Asztalos, Z. Szupera, L. Vécsei, Helmi Houtzager, and Magdolna Szente
In the present electrophysiological study the effect of aminooxyacetic acid (AOAA) on the cortical epileptogenicity, and on the basic electro-cortical activity was investigated in anesthetized rats.AOAA did not induce spontaneous epileptiform discharges but modified the somato-sensory evoked responses and the cortical epileptogenicity (induced by 4-aminopyridine) in the same manner depending on its concentration. AOAA at low concentrations increased the amplitude of evoked responses and the ipsilateral manifestation of epileptiform activity, however, at high concentrations significantly suppressed both the evoked responses and the induction and expression of seizures discharges. The anticonvulsive effect of AOAA was time-dependent (reached its maximum after 2h AOAA pre-treatment) and reversible. AOAA at low concentrations probably increases the efficacy of the NMDA excitatory system and decreases GABA-synthesis, resulting neuronal hyperexcitation. However, AOAA at high concentrations can lead to an effective cortical inhibition through intra- and extracellular accumulation of GABA. The gradual GABA accumulation - up to a certain level - at the synapses could also explain the time-dependency of the anticonvulsive effect of AOAA.
Authors:A. Majzik, V. Hornok, D. Sebők, T. Bartók, L. Szente, K. Tuza, and I. Dékány
Due to the warm and favourably humid climate of Southern Hungary, the maize is one of the most important crops. The protection against crop damage caused by fusarium and Aspergillus species is essential. Detection of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) molecules in cereal crops by selective sensors is important, while they can cause serious diseases in humans and animals if they enter the food chain. Our main objective was to develop selective AFB1 sensor with increased sensitivity applying βCD-functionalized gold nanoparticles (AuβCD NPs) in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) measuring apparatus. The nanoparticles ca. 10 nm in diameter were prepared in the presence of thiol-modified cyclodextrin. The adsorption isotherms of AFB1 on bare, thiol-modified cyclodextrin and AuβCD NPs covered Au film surface were calculated using SPR platform. The AFB1 concentration can be quantitatively determined in the 0.001–23.68 ng/mL range. The AuβCD NPs were found to be highly sensitive and exhibited a remarkably low limit of detection (LOD; 1 pg/mL) without using other analytical reagents.