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In our investigations the membrane filtration of quality wines (Tokaji Hárslevelű and Egri Bikavér) — based on diafiltration principles, applying nanofiltration membranes — has been studied. For the diafiltration experiments a relatively dense nanofiltration membrane NF 45 has been used, while for simple wine concentrations a membrane developed for organic components rejection NF200 has been investigated. The mixture of the retarded wine compounds was considered the main product of the process. The permeate that crossed the membrane was handled as the by product. Separated wine samples and the original wines have been subjected to gas chromatographic analysis: according to the results the partition of the main components and aroma compounds of the samples was approximately equal between the main and by-product. Membrane separation has been applied in accordance with a “prelaborated” experimental plan, when completing it the effect of operational parameters on the effectiveness of the process has been evaluated and analysed. By mathematical modelling of the phenomenon empirical and quasiempirical relations were set up, and solutions for the practical realization of the procedure were searched for. Our new model describes the filtration efficiency with our new index in the function of the operational parameters’ influence. The significance of the relation is, that the knowledge of the wine-constants might promote the expedient choice of the membrane, which is a primary aspect in planning and creating the process optimal.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
Kerti K. Badakné
,
L. Szalóki-Dorkó
,
Zs. Zalán
,
N. Adányi
, and
K. Takács
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Agrokémia és Talajtan
Authors:
Péter Csathó
,
E. Osztoics
,
J. Csillag
,
T. Lengyel
,
L. Gonda
,
L. Radimszky
,
G. Baczó
,
M. Magyar
,
K. R. Végh
,
M. Karátsonyi
,
T. Takács
,
A. Lukács
, and
T. Németh

Depending on their origin, sedimentary phosphate rocks (PRs) may differ in their P solubility, and, as a consequence, in their agronomic effectiveness. The effect of six phosphate rocks (PR) - originating from Algeria (ALG), North Florida (FLO), North Carolina (NCA), Senegal (SEN) Morocco (MOR) and Hyperphosphate (HYP) with various P solubility (evaluated by 2% formic acid, 2% citric acid, and neutral ammonium citrate) - as well as single superphosphate (SSP) and superphosphate + lime (SSP + Ca) (each P source on 4 P levels, with doses of 0, 100, 400 and 1600 mg P 2 O 5 ·kg -1 soil) on the shoot yield of tillering stage spring barley, soil available P (i.e. H 2 O, Olsen, Bray1, Lakanen-Erviö (LE) and ammonium lactate (AL) extractable P contents) were studied in pot experiments set up with acidic sandy soil (Nyírlugos, Hungary) and acidic clay loam soil (Ragály, Hungary), both with low P supplies.  The average spring barley shoot yield at the beginning of shooting was 95% higher on the colloid-rich acidic (pH KCl : 4.5) clay loam soil than on the colloid-poor acidic (pH KCl : 3.8) sandy soil. The differences in the solubility of phosphate rocks showed close correlation to the differences in P responses. On both soils, the correlation between total PR-P added and P responses in spring barley shoot yield was much weaker than that between neutral ammonium citrate soluble PR-P added and P responses in spring barley shoot yield. When phosphate rocks were applied as P sources, the comparison of soil test P methods showed a different picture on the two soils. In the case of the acidic sandy soil (Nyírlugos), the strongly acid LE-P (r² = 0.83) and AL-P (r² =0.74) tests gave the highest correlation coefficients with spring barley responses to P, while on the acidic clay loam soil (Ragály) these were achieved by the Olsen-P (r² = 0.88) and Bray1-P (r² =0.88) methods. 

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