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  • Author or Editor: Lei Zhao x
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Abstract  

This study described adsorption of uranium(VI) by citric acid modified pine sawdust (CAMPS) in batch and fixed-bed column modes at 295 K. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich, Koble–Corrigan and Dubinin–Radushkevich isotherm models. The results indicated that the Langmuir and Koble–Corrigan models provided the best correlation of the experimental data. The Elovish model was better to fit the kinetic process, which suggested that ion exchange was one of main mechanism. The effective diffusion parameter D i values indicated that the intraparticle diffusion was not the rate-controlling step. In fixed-bed column adsorption, the effects of bed height, feed flow rate, and inlet uranium (VI) concentration were studied by assessing breakthrough curve. The Thomas, the Yan and the bed-depth/service time (BDST) models were applied to the column experimental data to determine the characteristic parameters of the column adsorption. The results were implied that CAMPS may be suitable as an adsorbent material for adsorption of uranium (VI) from an aqueous solution.

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Abstract  

The uranium(VI) biosorption by grapefruit peel was studied from aqueous solutions. Batch experiments was conducted to evaluate the effect of contact time, initial uranium(VI) concentration, initial pH, adsorbent dose, salt concentration and temperature. The equilibrium process was well described by the Langmuir, Redlich–Peterson and Koble–Corrigan isotherm models, with maximum sorption capacity of 140.79 mg g−1 at 298 K. The pseudo second order model and Elovish model adequately describe the kinetic data in comparison to the pseudo first order model and the process involving rate-controlling step is much complex involving both boundary layer and intra-particle diffusion processes. The effective diffusion parameter D i and D f values were estimated at different initial concentration and the average values were determined to be 1.167 × 10−7 and 4.078 × 10−8 cm2 s−1. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption of uranium(VI) onto grapefruit peel biomass was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic under studied conditions. The physical and chemical properties of the adsorbent were determined by SEM, TG-DSC, XRD and elemental analysis and the nature of biomass–uranium (VI) interactions was evaluated by FTIR analysis, which showed the participation of COOH, OH and NH2 groups in the biosorption process. Adsorbents could be regenerated using 0.05 mol L−1 HCl solution at least three cycles, with up to 80% recovery. Thus, the biomass used in this work proved to be effective materials for the treatment of uranium (VI) bearing aqueous solutions.

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Abstract  

Sorption and desorption of radioeuropium on red earth and its solid components to remove organic matter was studied at pH 5.3±0.1 and 4.5±0.1, and in 0.01M and 0.001M NaClO4 solutions, respectively. Eu(III) sorption showed strong pH and humic acid concentration dependency, and NaClO4 concentration independency. The sorption increased with increasing pH and amount of HA adsorbed on red earth. The sorption of Eu(III) on red earth was mainly dominated by surface complexation. Humic acid and high pH had a great tendency to immobilize the movement of Eu(III) in red earth. Sorption-desorption hysteresis of Eu(III) on red earth indicated that the sorption was irreversible.

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Abstract  

In this paper, the sorption properties of manganese oxide coated sand (MOCS) towards uranium(VI) from aqueous solutions were studied in a batch adsorption system. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) and infrared (IR) analyses were used to characterize MOCS. Parameters affecting the adsorption of uranium(VI), such as the contact time, salt concentration, competitive ions, temperature and initial uranium(VI) concentration, were investigated. The equilibrium adsorption data were analyzed by Langmuir, Freundlich and Redlich–Peterson models using nonlinear regressive analysis. The results indicated that the Langmuir and Redlich–Peterson models provided the best correlation of experimental data. The kinetic experimental data were analyzed using three kinetic equations including pseudo-first order equation, pseudo-second order equation and intraparticle diffusion model to examine the mechanism of adsorption and potential rate-controlling step. The process mechanism was found to be complex, consisting of both surface adsorption and pore diffusion. The effective diffusion parameter D i values estimated in the order of 10−7 cm2 s−1 indicated that the intraparticle diffusion was not the rate-controlling step. Thermodynamic study showed that the adsorption was a spontaneous, endothermic process. Adsorbed U(VI) ions were desorbed effectively (about 94.7%) by 0.1 mol L−1 HNO3. The results indicated that MOCS can be used as an effective adsorbent for the treatment of industrial wastewaters contaminated with U(VI) ions.

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Abstract  

Sorption and desorption of Co(II) on montmorillonite under ambient conditions as a function of pH, ionic strength and fulvic acid are studied by batch technique. The results indicate that the sorption of Co(II) is dependent on pH, and ionic strength. The sorption-desorption hysteresis is found in the desorption tests. Surface complexation is considered as the main sorption mechanism of Co(II) on montmorillonite. The presence of fulvic acid (FA) enhances the sorption of Co(II) on montmorillonite. Montmorillonite is considered as a promising candidate for the solidification and pre-concentration of Co(II) from large volume of solutions.

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Abstract  

A continuous fixed-bed study was carried out by using zeolite as a low-cost adsorbent for the removal of uranium(VI) ions from aqueous solution under the effect of various process parameters such as the pH the bed depth, the flow rate, the presence of salt and the initial U(VI) ion concentration. The U(VI) ion uptake by zeolite increased with initial U(VI) ion concentration and bed height, but decreased as the flow rate increased. The adsorption capacity reached a maximum at pH of 6.0. A shorter breakthrough time was observed in the presence of salt. The experimental data obtained from the breakthrough curves were analyzed using the Thomas model. The BDST model was also applied to predict the service times for other flow rates and initial concentrations. The results showed that the Thomas model was suitable for the description of the whole breakthrough curve, while the data were in good agreement with the BDST model. The columns were regenerated by eluting the bound U(VI) ions with 0.1 mol L−1 NaHCO3 solution after the adsorption studies. After desorption and regeneration with deionized water, zeolite could be reused to adsorb uranium(VI) at a comparable capacity.

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A double-development TLC method has been developed for simultaneous qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrophilic and lipophilic constituents of Salvia miltiorrhiza (Danshen). The optimized mobile phases dichloromethane-ethyl acetate-formic acid 22:24:10 (ν/ν) and petroleum ether-ethyl acetate-cyclohexane 25:11:14 (ν/ν) were used for the double development on nano-silica gel 60F254 plates. Their characteristic TLC profiles were observed under UV light at 254 and 365 nm and the bands were then revealed by reaction with 5% H2SO4 in EtOH. Quantification of twelve compounds was achieved by densitometry at 260 or 290 nm, with reference at 400 nm. Linearity was quite good (R 2 > 0.99) within the ranges tested. This method could be used for quality control of Danshen.

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Abstract  

The liquid-liquid extraction of uranium(VI) from aqueous nitric acid with bis(octylsulfinyl)methane (BOSM) has been studied over a wide range of conditions. The extracted species appear to be UO2(NO3)2·2BOSM. It was found that the extraction increased with increasing nitric acid concentration up to 8.5 mol/l and then descreased. Extraction also increased with increasing extractant concentration. The influence of temperature and salting-out agent concentration on the extraction equilibrium has also been investigated, and the enthalpy of the extraction reaction was estimated.

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Abstract  

The synergic extraction of uranium(VI) from nitric acid solution with petroleum sulfoxides (PSO) and tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) mixture has been studied. It has been found that maximum synergic extraction effect occurs if the molar ratio of PSO to TBP is two to three. The composition of the complex of synergic extraction is UO2(NO3)2·TBP·PSO. The formation constant of the complex isK PT=8.19. The effect of extractant concentration, nitric acid concentration, salting-out agent concentration and temperature on the extraction equilibrium of uranium(VI) was also studied.

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Abstract

The heterogeneous catalytic oxidation of volatile organic compounds on Pd/Ce x La1−x O2/monolith catalysts in the temperature range 160–230 °C has been studied, which took toluene combustion as a probe reaction. SEM, ICP-OES, XRD, laser Raman spectra, and temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) are used to characterize the Pd/Ce x La1−x O2/monolith catalysts. A high activity of the catalyst with respect to the complete oxidation of toluene to carbon dioxide has been observed. The conversion of toluene approaches 100% at about 210 °C.

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