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Abstract

Objective  This paper aimed to examine the reliability of co-citation clustering analysis in representing the research history of subject by comparing the results from co-citation clustering analysis with a review written by authorities. Methods  Firstly, the treatment of traumatic spinal cord injury was chosen as an investigated subject to be retrieved the resource articles and their references were downloaded from Science Citation Index CD-ROM between 1992 and 2002. Then, the highly cited papers were arranged chronologically and clustered with the method of co-citation clustering. After mapping the time line visualization, the history and structure of treatment of spinal cord injury were presented clearly. At last, the results and the review were compared according the time period, and then the recall and the precision were calculated. Results  The recall was 37.5%, and the precision was 54.5%. The research history of traumatic spinal cord injury treatment analyzed by co-citation clustering was nearly consistent with authoritative review, although some clusters had shorter period than which was summarized by professionals. Conclusion  This paper concluded that co-citation clustering analysis was a useful method in representing the research history of subject, especially for the information researchers, who do not have enough professional knowledge. Its demerit of low recall could be offset by combination this method with other analytic techniques.

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Abstract

China's economy and technology have experienced spectacular growth since the Opening-up Policy adopted in 1978. In order to explore the innovation process and development of China, this study examines the inventive activities and the collaboration pattern of university, industry and government (UIG) in China. This study analyzes the Chinese patent data retrieved from the United States Patent and Trademark Office. Three models of UIG relations which represent different triple helix configurations are introduced. According to the property of patent assignee, patent ownership can be divided into three types: individuals, enterprises, and universities and research institutes. Furthermore, enterprises can be classified into state-owned enterprise (SOE), private-owned enterprise (POE) and foreign enterprise (FE). The corresponding relationship of patent ownership with UIG is set up. Through analyzing the issued year, it is found that the inventive activities of China have experienced three developmental phases and have been promoted quickly in recent years. The achievement of innovation activities in China primarily falls on the enterprise, especially FEs and POEs. The innovation strengths of the three development phases have shifted from government to university and research institute and then industry. According to co-patent analysis, it is found that the collaboration between university and industry is the strongest and has been intensified in recent years, but other forms of collaboration among UIG have been weak. In addition, an innovation relation model of China was set up. The evolution process of innovation systems was explored, from etatistic model, followed by improved “laissez-faire” model, and then shifting toward triple helix model.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Jia Zheng
,
Zhi-Yun Zhao
,
Xu Zhang
,
Dar-Zen Chen
,
Mu-Hsuan Huang
,
Xiao-Ping Lei
,
Ze-Yu Zhang
, and
Yun-Hua Zhao

Abstract

Since China adopted Open-Up and Reformed Policy for global collaboration, China's science and technology have experienced an astounding growth. Papers and patents encompass valuable scientific and technological (S&T) information and collaborative efforts. This article studies China's international S&T collaboration from the perspective of paper and patent analysis. The results show that China's total papers and patents have continuously increased from 2004 to 2008, the papers and patents resulting from China's international collaboration also present a steady growth. However, there is a decline in the share of international collaboration papers and patents with a certain range due to the rapid independent R&D. China's international scientific collaboration (ISC) is broadly distributed over many countries, the USA being the most important ISC partners. China's international technological collaboration (ITC) is mainly carried out with USA and Taiwan, and Taiwan has been the most significant ITC partner of when taking countries’ patent output into account. Besides, ISC shows a continuous raise of Chinese papers’ citation. Even the countries with a small amount of papers and ISC with China, exert a positive influence on the impact of citation of Chinese papers as well. However, ITC does not always play an active role in the improvement of citation impact of Chinese patents.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Jia Zheng
,
Zhi-yun Zhao
,
Xu Zhang
,
Dar-zen Chen
,
Mu-hsuan Huang
,
Xiao-ping Lei
,
Ze-yu Zhang
,
Yun-hua Zhao
, and
Run-sheng Liu

Abstract

Patents are the manifestation of the industry's research and development (R&D) endeavor; therefore, this paper studies the industry evolution of and key technologies in China from the perspective of patent analysis. Patents in six types of industries, including Chemical (excluding Drugs), Computers and Communications, Drugs and Medical, Electrical and Electronics (E&E), Mechanical, and Others are analyzed in this study. Findings from the analysis show a steady increase of US granted utility patents in China as well as percentage of these patents in the world over the period between 2003 and 2008. All the above industries in China have been growing rapidly during this period, which is very different from the global industry development. Despite the rapid development, the citation rates of these patents have been low, reflecting a need for improvement in the quality of patents and R&D performance for these six industries in China in order to exert more influence in the industry world. The analysis on patents also reveals China's industry distribution to be similar to the global industry distribution, with the exception of E&E industry which weights over one third of the total patents in technologies. The E&E industry is also the field with largest economic growth which rises more rapidly after 2006 with a sudden increase of patents in USPC 361. Detailed tracking of the key technology evolution reveals that 90% of the newly issued patents in USPC 361 after 2006 are owned by Foxconn Technology Co., Ltd, pointing to an unbalanced R&D environment in China's E&E industry sector. By providing the insight into the evolution of China's industrial and technological development through the perspective of patent analysis, this paper hopes to provide an objective statistic reference for future policy directions and academic researches.

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