Explosion limits are crucial information for people who handle/operate flammable vapors or gases. It was reported in our previous
studies that there is a theoretical linear relation between the reciprocal of the explosion limits and the reciprocal of the
molar fraction of hydrocarbons diluted with inert carbon dioxide or nitrogen. In this work, oxygenated hydrocarbons were inertized
by inert steam, and the relation of the upper explosion limit and the extent of the inertization was explored. With the assumption
that the adiabatic flame temperatures are the same for all limit mixtures, it was found that the aforementioned linear relation
still holds in case the inert gas is of steam and the flammable material is of oxygenated hydrocarbons. Experimental work
was carried out in a 20-L-Apparatus at 101 kPa and 423 K to measure the upper explosion limit of methyl alcohol, acetone,
and methyl formate diluted with steam, respectively. It was found that experimental results fit the theoretical model very
Experiments on the crystallization of amorphous Fe−Si−B alloys were carried out by thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This new
method gives us some important information about the magnetic phase transformation of amorphous alloys, especially the magnetic
volume change in crystallization beside the energy change obtained by the traditional DSC and DTA methods. Crystallization
activation energies of Fe−Si−B amorphous alloy are calculated from both TG and DTA curves. The experiment also showed that
the addition of Nb, Cu and Mo would influence the crystallization transition temperature of amorphous Fe−Si−B alloys greatly.
Instrumental neutron activation analysis was used for the determination of 31 major and trace elements in 32 samples from the Xinji Loess Section, Shaanxi Province, China. Interferences, including those from uranium fission products, were evaluated and corrections applied where necessary. The 39.7-meter deep section comprises of Lishi Loess of the middle Pleistocene (Q2) and Malan Loess of the late Pleistocene (Q3). The section is characterized by the presence of 5 layers of paleosol, and each paleosol is underlain by a precipitation layer. When the elemental abundances are converted to a carbonate-free basis, there is little compositional difference among the carbonate-free fractions of loess, paleosol and precipitation layers. This indicates that dissolution of carbonate minerals by downward-moving surface water was an important process in paleosol formation while other minerals were not severely weathered and elemental fractionation was minimal. The parent materials of the paleosol and precipitation layers closely resemble the loess layers in their elemental abundances, which suggests that all layers in the section have a compositionally similar source.
The kinetics of direct reduction of artificial chrome iron ore was studied by isothermal and non-isothermal methods. In the initial, middle and final periods, the reaction is controlled by nucleation and growth, a phase boundary reaction, and diffusion, respectively. In the main reaction region, the kinetic equation is 1–(1–)1/3=kt and the apparent activation energy is 270 kJ mol–1. The kinetic mechanisms found with the isothermal and non-isothermal methods do not differ, and the activation energy values are approximately the same. However, the non-isothermal method can demonstrate the kinetic process completely.
The —T and d/dT—T curves of the FeCuNbSiB amorphous alloy, which are the relationship between the total saturated magnetic moment per unit mass and temperature, are investigated by magnetic thermogravimetry analysis (TG(M)) technique. It is found that the crystallization process of the samples can be divided into five stages. The studies of samples annealed in temperature range of 480–610°C for 1h show that when the annealing temperature (Ta) is less than 540°C, the quantity of nanocrystalline -Fe(Si) phase increases evidently with Ta, and the Curie temperature (TC) of residual amorphous phase also increases linearly with Ta, i.e. TC=0.52Ta+91.7°C, with correlation coefficient =0.98. The variation of volume fraction of -Fe(Si) nanocrystalline phase or residual amorphous phase with Ta is measured by TG(M) technique.
This study determined bromine, iron, scandium and zinc serum levels in Taiwanese aboriginal preschool children living in remote
mountainous areas to increase the understanding of the social, cultural, nutrient and ethnic background of the Taiwanese children.
Seventy-three serum samples were taken from two ethnic groups of preschool children, Atayal aborigines (AAPC) and Bunun aborigines
(BAPC). Sera of these children were freeze dried. Trace elements in sera were identified by instrumental neutron activation
analysis (INAA). The accuracy and precision of INAA was evaluated using certified reference materials: Tomato Leaves (NIST-SRM
1570a) and Lichen (IAEA-336). Statistical analysis identified several different patterns for ethnic groups, gender and age
via the two-tailed Student's t-test. Analytical results showed that the ranges of Br, Fe, Sc and Zn in sera were somewhat wide. The Zn serum levels (p<0.05) and Br serum levels (p<0.01) in the AAPC were significantly lower than those in the BAPC. However, there were no significant differences in Fe or
Sc serum levels between the two groups. Analytical results were compared to published data for different counties. This study
is the first investigating trace elements in Taiwanese aborigines and can be used to establish a much-needed serum element
Rapid, in situ measurements were used for quantitative monitoring of gaseous fission products around the nuclear power stations
in Taiwan. A portable high-resolution germanium detector with portable multichannel analyzer was used in the field monitoring
work. The detecting unit was calibrated using activated Ar, Kr, and Xe isotopes dispersed in a large chamber to obtain absolute
efficiency curve in terms of γ-counts per m3 versus gamma-ray energy. The calibrated detecting unit was brought to the nuclear power plants for in situ monitoring for
both normal operation and nuclear accidental exercise. In a typical four-hour measurement, the detection limits for most Kr
and Xe fission product isotopes were 0.0028%≈0.98% of the derived air concentration (DAC) imposed by the local authority.
The dose rate caused by gaseous radioisotopes released from nuclear power stations and dispersed to the surroundings can be
quantitatively monitored in a short period using this portable unit.
Vapor-phase selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde was carried out over Ir/TiO2 catalysts with different Ir contents prepared by an impregnation method. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectra of CO adsorption (CO-DRIFTS), NH3 temperature-programmed desorption (NH3-TPD), Raman spectroscopy and temperature-programmed oxidation (TPO). It was found that with increasing Ir content in Ir/TiO2, both the activity (TOF) and selectivity to crotyl alcohol first increased and then slightly decreased. The 3 % Ir/TiO2 catalyst showed the highest activity, (with a TOF of 9.3 × 10−3 s−1) and the highest selectivity to crotyl alcohol (74.6 %) in the hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde. The results of CO-DRIFTS indicated that the reduced catalyst contains a mixture of Ir0 and Irδ+. It was concluded that the catalytic performance of the catalysts depended on the strength of surface acidity and the Ir particles size for the selective hydrogenation of crotonaldehyde to crotyl alcohol.
Ammonium uranates (AU) obtained by the addition of aqueous NH4 OH to a solution of UO2 (NO3)2 or the equilibrium reaction of UO3 · 2H2 O with the vapour over concentrated NH4 OH have been studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, diffuse reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (DR-FTIR) and chemical analysis. Ammonia can be present as either NH3 or NH
. For precipitates obtained at a pH of 3.7, ammonia in the form of NH3 is predominant. For ammonium uranate obtained by reaction over concentrated NH4OH, most of the ammonia is bonded as NH
. The reaction mechanism and structures of the products are also discussed.