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Growing research on beans suggest that they are good for health, as they reduce the risk and/or help in the management of chronic diseases. Beans are valuable parts of several dietary recommendations. Saponins, α-galactosides, phytates, and lectins are currently drawing attention because of their diverse properties, both adverse and beneficial. The aim was to determine the hepatotoxic effect of dry red kidney beans, i.e. Phaseolus vulgaris, on rabbits at 4 g kg–1, 6 g kg–1, and 8 g kg–1 dosing for the period of 30 days. The histopathological examination revealed inflammation of hepatocyte at all three doses along with congestion. The biochemical testing of liver enzymes revealed elevated alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate transaminase (AST) and gamma-glutamyl transferase (γ-GT). The dose-dependent increase in liver enzymes indicates the hepatotoxic effect of dry red kidney beans, and various studies have demonstrated that lectins are the toxic components responsible for inflammation of body organs.

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In order to breed rice cultivars for resistance to the brown planthopper, Nilaparvata lugens Stål (BPH) in Bangladesh, were evaluated for resistance in greenhouse screening tests. Over a period of six years (2005–2010), 1,767 entries/cultivars were screened using the plant hopper screening (PHS) system. The results showed 87 donors possessing different levels of resistance to the BPH. One exotic cultivar was highly resistant to the BPH and 86 materials showed medium resistance (tolerance) to the BPH. The rest of the materials including germplasm, F2, exotic, IRBPHN (International Rice Brown Planthopper Nursery) and advanced lines were susceptible. Most of entries coming from the International Rice Research Institute (IRRI) via the IRBPHN were moderately resistant.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: G. Rácz, M. Alam, Ch. Arekatte, K. Albert, N. Papp, É. Stefanovits-Bányai, P. Russo, M. DiMatteo, and Gy. Vatai

Different osmotic agents (OA), such as potassium acetate (CH3COOK), potassium carbonate (K2CO3) and ammonium nitrate (NH4NO3), have been examined as alternatives to the traditionally used calcium chloride (CaCl2) for osmotic distillation concentrating of clarified and pre-concentrated sour cherry (Prunus cerasus L.) juice. Comparison of the process performances based on the permeate fluxes has been carried out. Regarding the permeate flux results, simplified estimation of the overall mass transfer coefficient of the most effective osmotic agent and the reference (CaCl2) solution has been also performed. Furthermore, analytical methods such as total antioxidant activity (TAA) and total polyphenolic content (TPC) using spectrophotometric assays have been also carried out to evaluate the effect of the osmotic distillation on the valuable compounds content of concentrated sour cherry juice. CH3COOK was found to be the most effective, resulted more than 25% higher permeate flux during the sour cherry juice concentration. K2CO3 and NH4NO3 were less effective. The simplified mass transfer estimation showed that the CH3COOK is more effective only at near saturated concentrations compared to the CaCl2. Regarding the TAA and TPC contents, a significant loss was found in case of all OAs during the concentration procedures.

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