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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Fangwen Yu
,
Jialin Li
,
Lei Xu
,
Xiaoxiao Zheng
,
Meina Fu
,
Keshuang Li
,
Shuxia Yao
,
Keith M. Kendrick
,
Christian Montag
, and
Benjamin Becker

Abstract

Background

Accumulating evidence suggests brain structural and functional alterations in Internet Use Disorder (IUD). However, conclusions are strongly limited due to the retrospective case-control design of the studies, small samples, and the focus on general rather than symptom-specific approaches.

Methods

We here employed a dimensional multi-methodical MRI-neuroimaging design in a final sample of n = 203 subjects to examine associations between levels of IUD and its symptom-dimensions (loss of control/time management, craving/social problems) with brain structure, resting state and task-based (pain empathy, affective go/no-go) brain function.

Results

Although the present sample covered the entire range of IUD, including normal, problematic as well as pathological levels, general IUD symptom load was not associated with brain structural or functional alterations. However, the symptom-dimensions exhibited opposing associations with the intrinsic and structural organization of the brain, such that loss of control/time management exhibited negative associations with intrinsic striatal networks and hippocampal volume, while craving/social problems exhibited a positive association with intrinsic striatal networks and caudate volume.

Conclusions

Our findings provided the first evidence for IUD symptom-domain specific associations with progressive alterations in the intrinsic structural and functional organization of the brain, particularly of striatal systems involved in reward, habitual and cognitive control processes.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Xinqi Zhou
,
Renjing Wu
,
Congcong Liu
,
Juan Kou
,
Yuanshu Chen
,
Halley M. Pontes
,
Dezhong Yao
,
Keith M. Kendrick
,
Benjamin Becker
, and
Christian Montag

Abstract

Background and aims

Growing concerns about the addictive nature of Internet and computer games led to the preliminary recognition of Internet Gaming Disorder (IGD) as an emerging disorder by the American Psychiatric Association (APA) and the official recognition of Gaming Disorder (GD) as a new diagnosis by the World Health Organization (WHO). While the definition of clear diagnostic criteria for (I)GD represents an important step for diagnosis and treatment of the disorder, potential neurobiological correlates of the criteria remain to be explored.

Methods

The present study employed a dimensional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) approach to determine associations between (I)GD symptom-load according to the APA and WHO diagnostic frameworks and brain structure in a comparably large sample of n = 82 healthy subjects.

Results

Higher symptom-load on both, the APA and WHO diagnostic frameworks convergently associated with lower volumes of the striatum.

Discussion

The results from this exploratory study provide the first initial evidence for a neurobiological foundation of the proposed diagnostic criteria for (I)GD according to both diagnostic classification systems and suggest that the transition from non-disordered to disordered gaming may be accompanied by progressive neuroplastic changes in the striatum, thus resembling progressive changes in other addictive disorders.

Conclusions

The proposed (I)GD criteria in both diagnostic systems were associated with neurostructural alterations in the striatum, suggesting an association with progressive changes in the motivational systems of the brain.

Open access
Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
P. V. Drion
,
A. Zarrouk
,
J. Sulon
,
O. Szenci
,
J. F. Beckers
,
Zs. Perényi
,
B. Remy
, and
J. M. Garbayo

The Pregnancy Associated Glycoproteins (PAGs) presented in this paper are largely expressed in the ruminant placenta. These proteins are classified as probably inactive members of the aspartic proteinase family. Pepsinogen, renin, cathepsin E & D and chymosine are typical members of this family, characterised by the presence of aspartic acids boarding the recognition sites. Secreted in the peripheral blood of the pregnant female from early pregnancy, these proteins can be used in serological tests for establishing different diagnoses. In the veterinary practice, these diagnoses are useful for both pregnancy confirmation and follow-up of trophoblastic function. The first aspect can help breeders in the management of reproduction, while the second one more specifically concerns clinicians and researchers wishing to establish a differential diagnosis of pathologic conditions affecting pregnancy.

Restricted access