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Steps in a minefield

Some kinetic aspects of thermal analysis

Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Author: M. Brown

Abstract  

This paper is a review of some of the controversial kinetic aspects of thermal analysis, starting from the ‘šesták questions’ posed in 1979 and looking at developments in some areas since that time. Aspects considered include: temperature programmes and variations, models and mechanisms, kinetic parameters, distinguishability and extent of fit of kinetic models, complementary evidence for kinetic models, the Arrhenius equation and the compensation effect. The value of the ideas of non-isothermal kinetics in chemical education is emphasized.

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Abstract  

Some applications of thermal analysis (TA) and temperature profile analysis (TPA) to the study of a variety of binary pyrotechnic systems are described. Factors that effect the combustion of such fuel/oxidant mixtures are discussed. Trends in burning behaviour and the experimental limitations of the techniques available are identified.

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Abstract  

Professor Vladimir V. Boldyrev has made numerous important contributions to a wide range of chemical topics, not only limited to studies of the decompositions of solids. Of particular value has been his emphasis on exploring, in detail, the chemical steps participating in the thermal reactions of solids by carefully designed experiments that rely on more observational evidence than the run-of-the-mill collection of overall kinetic data. Some of these major contributions to both the theory and the uses of solid-state reactions are identified here and discussed in relation to his illuminating and fundamental mechanistic studies of the thermal decompositions of silver oxalate, ammonium perchlorate, potassium permanganate and the dehydration of copper sulfate pentahydrate.

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Abstract  

Thermal analysis is routinely used to characterize pyrotechnic fuels, oxidants and fuel/oxidant mixtures [1]. Thermomagnetometry (TM) can provide additional information if the magnetic properties of the materials change during reaction. TG, TM and DTA results for the iron/potassium permanganate, iron/barium peroxide, and iron/strontium peroxide systems as loose powders or pressed pellets indicate predominantly solid-gas mechanisms for reactions in these systems.

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Abstract  

The thermal behaviour of the aminosalicylic acids is compared with the behaviour of their 1:1 molar ratio physical and kneaded mixtures with each of three different cyclodextrins (b-, hydroxypropyl-b-, and g-cyclodextrin), using differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry coupled with evolved gas analysis by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. X-ray powder diffraction and infrared spectroscopy provided complementary information. Comparison of the effects of the different cyclodextrins on the behaviour of the individual aminosalicylic acid isomers shows that hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin has the greatest interaction with 3-aminosalicylic acid and 5-aminosalicylic acid, followed by g-cyclodextrin, while b-cyclodextrin generally shows the least interaction. For 4-aminosalicylic acid, the effect of g-cyclodextrin seems to be more marked than for 3-aminosalicylic acid and 5-aminosalicylic acid.

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Abstract  

Nifedipine complexes with β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), γ-cyclodextrin (γ-CD), 2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (2HP-β-CD), randomly methylated-β-cyclodextrin (RM-β-CD) and heptakis(2,6-O-dimethyl)-β-cyclodextrin (DM-β-CD) have been prepared by both kneading and heating methods and their behaviour studied by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), diffuse reflectance mid-infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffractometry (XRD). DSC revealed the nifedipine melting endotherm with onset at approximately 171°C for the kneaded mixtures with β-CD, γ-CD and 2HP-β-CD, thus confirming the presence of nifedipine in the crystalline state, while some decrease in crystallinity was observed in the DM-β-CD kneaded mixture. With RM-β-CD, however, broadening and shifting of the nifedipine endotherm and reduction in its intensity suggested that the kneading could have produced an amorphous inclusion complex. These differing extents of interaction of nifedipine with the cyclodextrins were confirmed by FTIR and XRD studies.

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