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The number of stomata and the concentration of macro- and microelements in four new winter wheat genotypes: Lenta, Lara, Perla and Fiesta were investigated in two localities in Croatia in the 1997/98 growing season. The stomata number per mm2 was determined by a standard method. N was established by the micro-Kjeldahl method, P spectrophotometrically and K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn by the AAS method. The interrelation of the investigated parameters was determined by multiple regression and correlation analysis. The results obtained indicate that the number of stomata per mm2 and the macro- and microelement concentrations depended on the genotype, the phenophase and the locality. A statistically significant correlation was found between the stomata number per mm2 and the macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg) and microelement (Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn) concentrations.
Four different tillage systems were compared in soybean [ Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production on one experimental field (chernozem) located in the Baranya region of northeastern Croatia in 2002 and 2003. The dry conditions experienced in 2003 exacerbated the negative effects of no-tillage on soybean yield. The 2-year average yield of soybean was significantly lower under no-tillage (NT) than in the conventional tillage (CT), soil loosening (SL) and disc harrowing (DH) treatments. The soybean oil and protein contents were very similar in all the tillage systems over the 2-year average. Soybean crude fibre (%) was affected by the main effect of tillage. Averaged over 2 years the crude fibre (%) of soybean grain was greater under NT than in the CT, DH and SL treatments. The ash (%) generally increased as tillage declined.
Mineral composition of grain of some new winter wheat genotypes in Croatia was studied. The following genotypes were selected: Lara, Lenta Kruna Fiesta, AG-45 and Perla which were taken from macrotrials during two vegetation periods of 1997/98 and 1998/99 at two locations in Donji Miholjac and Kutjevo. N-concentration was determined by the micro-Kjeldahl method, P spectrophotometrically and concentration of K, Ca, Mg, Zn, Cu, Fe and Mn by the AAS method (atomic absorption spectrophotometry). Interaction between the examined parameters was defined by multiple regression and correlation analysis. The results showed higher concentrations of N, P, K, Mg, Zn, Cu, and Mn, except for Fe, in the grain from Donji Miholjac than from Kutjevo. High concentration variability of macro and microelements in the grain of the examined genotypes depended on location and growing year. Concentration of macro and microelements in the grain did not have significant correlation with the grain yield for the examined genotypes, apart from N and Mg concentration.
The effect of tillage systems (TS) on wheat quality traits including grain yield, thousand-kernels weight, hectoliter mass, flour extraction rate and flour rheological properties were evaluated. Five different TS were compared in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production on one experimental field (chernosem) located in the Baranya region, north-eastern Croatia from 1998 to 2001. Tillage systems included conventional tillage (CT), disc harrowing, fine till (DHF), soil loosening (SL) + disc harrowing (DH), disc harrowing, coarse till (DHC) and no-tillage (NT). The most stable grain yield was obtained by DHF and CT in all three experimental years. There was no striking regularity with regard to applied TS and hectoliter mass and thousand-kernels weight. The biggest difference of hectoliter mass was determined between CT and NT. TS had significant influence on the flour extraction rate in all three experimental years. The influence of TS on farinographic parameters was significant for all three experimental years for the quality number. Quality number was greater under CT than under other TS. Tillage effect on extensographic and amylographic parameters in the 3-year average did not show statistically significant differences. To sum up, since disc harrowing (DHF) and (DHC) followed by soil loosening with chisel produced equal grain yield and wheat quality parameters were slightly better than conventional tillage, these systems could be presented as an even handed replacement for ploughing.
Eight different tillage systems were compared in soybean production on one experimental field (chernozem) located in the Baranya region of Croatia over a 4-year period (2001/2002, 2002/2003, 2003/2004, 2004/2005). The dry conditions experienced in 2003 exacerbated the effects of NT and CWNS on the soybean yield. The most stable grain yield was obtained using CSNW and CSDW in all four experimental years. DH, CH and CWDS did not result in any significant reduction in crop yield compared to CT. There was no clear trend regarding the applied tillage systems and grain yield components. The greatest effects on soybean yield and yield components were due to climatic conditions. Different tillage systems had a significant effect on the soybean grain yield and yield components in the four experimental years. The largest differences in stem height were determined between CSNW and NT. The number of pods per plant, the hectolitre mass and the grain yield were significantly lower under NT than under the other tillage systems. The number of fertile nodes of soybean and the number of branches per plant in the experimental years had approximately the same values for all the tillage systems. To sum up, the results achieved with DH, CH, CSDW, CWDS and CSNW were on par with each other and slightly better than CT, and these systems could represent adequate replacements for conventional tillage. No tillage could not be considered as the most favourable for soybean growing.
Length and width of guard cells and variation in the appearance of stomata pores in the following Arum species: Arum italicum Mill., Arum maculatum var. maculatum L. and Arum maculatum var. immaculatum L. at Zablaće and Normanci location, and Arum alpinum var. pannonicum Terpo., Arum alpinum var. intermedium Schur. in Bilje at the eastern Slavonia and Baranya region were investigated. With regard to guard cells length and width and variation in the appearance of stomata pores, stomata of certain Arum species are considered to be of larger dimensions (≯38 µm). Arum species grown at Zablaće had the longest and widest guard cells as well as the greatest variation in the appearance of stomata pores, followed by those at Normanci, whereas species at Bilje location had the lowest values. The average length and width of the guard cells and variation in the appearance of stomata pores were larger at the lower than at the upper epidermis among each examined Arum species at each location. A significant difference in guard cells length and width and variation in the appearance of stomata pores at both upper and lower epidermis was determined for Zablaće and Normanci location, whereas there was no significant difference in those parameters at Bilje location.
Comparative variability in some morphological properties, for example, in leaves and flowers, among and within each of three species Arum italicum Mill., Arum maculatum L. var. maculatum and var. immaculatum Reichb. as well as Arum alpinum Schott et Kotschy var. pannonicum Terpó and var. intermedium Terpó from three localities in Eastern Slavonia and from two in Baranya region in Croatia were studied. The investigation included the variability among and within of the populations and habitats and among the species. The results obtained indicated significant differences chiefly in some morphological parameters, such as in length of petiole and peduncle, in length of spathe, in length and diameter of spathe-tube, in length and diameter of appendix as well as in length of pistillate and staminate flowers. Moreover, the taxonomic treatment of the species Arum alpinum Schott et Kotschy as a disagreement was also discussed. The most of the morphological features are in the concordance with observations made by Prof. Bedalov.
A series of new (S,S)-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoate esters has shown cytotoxic activity towards human leukemic cell lines. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a bioanalytical method for quantification of (S,S)-O,O-diethyl-ethylenediamine-N,N′-di-2-(3-cyclohexyl)propanoate dihydrochlorides (DE-EDCP) and its metabolite, substituted propanoic acid (EDCP), in mouse serum by ultra high-performance liquid chromatography—tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC—MS/MS). Structural analog, derivative of 1,3-propanediamine, was used as an internal standard (IS). Sample preparation employed protein precipitation by acetonitrile and subsequent centrifugation. Optimal UHPLC separation conditions were set to achieve simultaneous determination of both compounds in a short run time of 6 min. Additionally, the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode developed in this method allowed a highly sensitive, accurate, and precise identification of compounds of interest. The lower limit of quantitation (LOQ) was 1.3 ng mL−1 for DE-EDCP and 0.3 μg mL−1 for EDCP. The calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 1.3–26.7 ng mL−1 and 0.3–6.7 μg mL−1 for DE-EDCP and EDCP, respectively. Precision (%CV) and accuracy (%RE) for DE-EDCP and EDCP ranged from 3.5% to 16.0% and from 1.8% to 14.4%, respectively.
The validation process was performed in accordance with the regulatory guidance/guideline, and all of the obtained results met the established acceptance criteria. The newly developed and validated UHPLC—MS/MS method is rapid, sensitive, and selective, and it can be successfully applied to drug monitoring in nonclinical studies.