Authors:S. Németh, L. Szalay, G. Ficzek, M. Stéger-Máté, G. Sándor, G. Végvári and M. Tóth
A HPLC instrument was used to analyse various acid (citric, malic, succinic acid) and sugar (sucrose, glucose, fructose, sorbitol) components in the fruit of three cultivars grown in Hungary (Gönci magyar kajszi, Mandulakajszi and Harcot), while the β-carotene content was analysed spectrophotometrically. Changes in the chemical content of apricot varieties have not previously been monitored in the course of ripening. The quality of various food products is greatly influenced by the chemical components of the raw materials.The cultivar Gönci magyar kajszi had exceptionally high β-carotene (3.79 mg/100 g in 90% maturity) and sugar content (sucrose: 11253.9 mg/100 g, fructose: 315.2 mg/100 g and glucose: 1434.8 mg/100 g). Mandulakajszi was the most acidic (citric acid: 1597.2 mg/100 g). The malic acid content was similar for all three varieties during ripening. In case of Harcot, the β-carotene content was high in 2008 (3.58 mg/100 g in 90% maturity), however in 2010 it was lower due to environmental influences (2.38 mg/100 g). The pH value was similar for all examined varieties in all ripening stages (3.16–3.50), the TSS/TA value was highest in the 100% mature fruit (18.41) of Gönci magyar kajszi.
Authors:P. Szalay, K. Sipos, A. Szucs, M. Bodo, M. Sowd and FJ Pearce
Despite recent evidence of the beneficial effects of moderate alcohol consumption in arteriosclerosis prevention, the neurotoxic effects of alcohol abuse are well known. Our hypothesis was that uncontrolled alcohol consumption may cause cerebrovascular damage detectable by rheoencepholography (REG), a noninvasive bio-impedance technique for estimating cerebral blood flow. Test subjects were 48 alcoholic patients in Hungary; the control group consisted of 12 drug-addicted and depressed patients in Hungary and 13 healthy male subjects in the United States. Additional subgroups were formed according to smoking habits and average daily alcohol dose. REG was measured by a computer-based system, “Cerberus”; REG anacrotic time above 180 ms was considered pathological. ANOVA showed that daily alcohol consumption and smoking were significantly higher in alcoholics than in drug-addicted and depressed patients. Twelve alcoholics showed a pathological REG anacrotic time. Longer REG anacrotic time was correlated with higher daily alcohol consumption. In the alcoholic group, the steeper regression line of REG slope reflected the pathological impact of alcohol abuse. The healthy control sample showed a nearly identical slope for both REG and age. The correlation of increased REG anacrotic time and daily alcohol consumption supports the hypothesis that REG detects accelerated cerebrovascular aging (arteriosclerosis) in alcoholic subjects.
Authors:István Virág, K. Szalay, C. Szőke, G. Milics, L. Marton and M. Neményi
Kernel samples of two maize hybrids (46308 and 463017) with different levels of resistance to Fusarium ear rot were collected from artificially and naturally infected plants. The spectral characteristics of the samples were analysed with an ASD Fieldspec 3 MAX spectroradiometer in the wavelength range of 350 to 2500 nm using an ex situ method. The different extents of artificial and natural Fusarium infection on the maize kernels resulted in spectral differences detectable with a spectroradiometer. The data showed that for both genotypes the level of Fusarium infection generated by artificial inoculation was significantly higher than that caused by natural infection over a wavelength range of 2030 to 2080 nm. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) on the data set for this range revealed that the first component explained 77.0% of the variability for hybrid 46308 and 97.0% for hybrid 46317.