A 20. század első évtizedében megindult tudományos igényű barlangkutatás számos kulcsfontosságú lelőhelyünk részleges vagy teljes feltárását eredményezte. Az ásatási módszerek, a dokumentáció hiányosságai vagy hiánya, a leletek barlangon belüli és lelőhelyek közötti keveredése olyan elméletek megfogalmazásához vezetett, amelyeket újra kell értelmezni, és ha szükséges, módosítani kell. A szerző négy barlang (Pálffy/Dzeravá skála, Jankovich, Bivak, Pilisszántó II) dokumentációjának, rétegsorának revíziójával megkísérli tisztázni az előkerülési körülményeket, a csonttárgyak tipológiai és morfológiai vizsgálatával a mai terminológiának megfelelő kultúrákba besorolni ezeket az eszközöket.
A Debercsény-Mogyoróson felszínen gyűjtött anyag eltér az eddig megismert cserháti bifaciális leletegyüttesektől: tipológiailag a szlovákiai és morvaországi levéleszközös („Szeletien”) csoporthoz kapcsolható. A Bükkből és a Zempléni-hegységből származó kőeszköz-nyersanyagok felhasználása azonban megegyezik a területről eddig megismert leletegyüttesek esetében megfigyeltekkel.
The eponymous locality of the Middle Palaeolithic industry was first excavated 1913. As a result of nine years investigations, 104 lithic artefacts, made predominantly of radiolarite were collected from the exceptionally thick yellowish red sediment. According to our reconstructions, on the top of the layer s. str. Szeletian artefacts and osseous tools, in the lowermost level Micoquian-type stone tools were found. Unfortunately, the majority of the artefacts, including the retouched Levallois blanks, “raclettes”, leaf-shaped implements and some antler tools cannot be linked to well-defined levels. Instead of the connections of the find material with the industries found in southern Germany or on the Balkans, we suggest draw attention to the similarities with the assemblage of layer G1 of the Vindija cave (Croatia).
The eponymous site of the Jankovichian industry was found at the Öreg kő cliff, in the northern part of the Transdanubia, Western Hungary. From the thick layer complex of the Jankovich cave, however, only 104 lithics were collected and the scarce data showed that the pieces belong to several archaeological entities. At the same time, the nearly total lack of the field documentation allowed the reconstruction of the stratigraphic position of each artefact only in a few cases. The stratigraphic integrity is missing from the archaeological material of the Kiskevély and Szelim caves as well as the Csákvár rock shelter, and according to the recent evaluations the bifacial tools from the Dzeravá skála (Pálffy cave) and Lovas belong to the Micoquian and the Late Palaeolithic period.
In this paper we analyse the following three assemblages, excavated after World War II in Transdanubia: the Pilisszántó rock shelter II, the Bivak and the Remete Felső caves. The chronological, basically, bio-stratigraphic data known from these layers are also evaluated.
The conclusion of the study is that (1) the chronological data of the studied sites do not permit to place the archaeological occupation of each cave into the Early Würm or to the Late Middle Palaeolithic period and (2) the validity of a distinct Jankovichian industry cannot be proved.
The Istállóskő cave is one of the classical Palaeolithic sites in Hungary, generally regarded as the only important Aurignacian locality in Hungary with two discrete culture bearing layers. The lower unit, characterised by the presence of split based points played a key role in several theories on the appearance of the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe, while in the upper layer some Mladeč or Olschewa type points were found.
In this paper the author reviews the antler and ivory artefacts found in the lower layer stored in the Hungarian National Museum. The reconstruction of assemblage formation was rather complicated, but the high number of fragments, the occurrence of typical macrofracture patterns and the rejuvenated implements shed light to the human behaviour. Finally a few pieces with sufficient preservation allow us to point some details to the operational chain of the osseous tool production.
All these aspects of the assemblage were determined by the topographic location of the cave, lying at a large relative height by the end of a long and deep valley, determining the nature of the human occupation of this locality. This raises the question of the comparability of the assemblages with other collections.
The Istállóskő cave, one of the classical sites in Hungary was generally regarded as the only important locality of the Aurignacian culture with two discrete culture-bearing layers. The assemblages played a key role in several theories on the appearance of the Upper Palaeolithic in Europe; however, this is the first time that all the lithic artefacts found since 1912 until 1965 are studied in details.
As a result of our analysis, none of the studied lithic assemblages could be attributed to to the s. str. Aurignacian industry as the diagnostic pieces are absent. Quite atypical fragmented blades and a bifacial tool have been uncovered in the poor ‘lower ( Aurignacian I) culture-bearing layer’, which — together with the rich osseous industry, including split based points — are compared to the assemblages of the Jankovich cave (Transdanubia), the Dzeravá skála/Pálffy cave (Slovakia) and layer G1 in the Vindija cave (Croatia).
In the ‘upper (Aurignacian II) culture-bearing layer’ the few Mladec/Olschewa-type osseous artefacts were associated with Gravettian flint lithics and Middle Palaeolithic and bifacial elements made from radiolarite and felsitic porphyry. This industry is compared to those known from early Gravettian sites and the Szeleta cave.
The remnants of the medieval convent, whose remains had in part been excavated between 1998 and 2002, were investigated over a larger area during the salvage excavation preceding the conservation of the ruins in 2010. The investigations yielded new information on the architectural history and evolution of the complex. It also became clear that the date of the earliest architectural period can only be determined if the entire convent and its broader area can be archaeologically explored.
Authors:András Markó, Alfréd Dulai, and Viola Dobosi
During the excavations of the Upper Palaeolithic site at Mogyorósbánya several non-utilitarian artefacts were found. Beside the earlier published piece of fossil resin (amber) and lumps of red ochre, more than one hundred Palaeogene and Neogene fossil molluscs, large foraminifers, corals and trace fossils from at least three different geological formations, as well as numerous fragments of phyllite were documented.
Pebbles of this soft shale were most probably collected from the alluvium of the Danube river. The majority of the pieces show clear traces of scraping and along the periphery of the largest artefact rhythmic incisions are visible. Even if this piece is not a ready-made object, it can be compared to the limestone and sandstone pebbles found on the Epigravettian site of Pilismarót-Pálrét. Another interesting artefact of unknown function is a carefully shaped but strongly fragmented piece with sharp edge.
Fossils of the Eocene Epoch were easily accessible in the region of Mogyorósbánya, while the nearest fossiliferous outcrops of the Oligocene and Pannonian sediments are found 15–17 km in south-eastern direction from the site.
Few gastropod shells show unambiguous traces of human modification. Typically, among the 16 Melanopsis fossils found in a single square meter only three pieces were manufactured. On the other hand, the majority of the Dentalium and worm tube fragments were cut and their surfaces show intense rounding and shine.
The not modified Nummulites, corals and large internal casts of gastropods were most probably collected by Prehistoric humans because of their unusual form. This interesting group of the Mogyorósbánya artefacts and are compared to the fossils published from the Pilisszántó I rockshelter and to the not modified fossils from Moravia and Romania.