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Treatment of chronic hepatitis B has changed much since the introduction of interferon. Nucleosides have come to replace interferon in some situations like decompensated states. However, there is no clear cut guideline in many fields. Even end of treatment response is low in conventional treatments. This study describes a few scenarios where difficulties were faced. Unresolved questions in the management of chronic hepatitis B involve ‘who to treat, when to treat, how to treat?’ These should be clearly addressed.

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Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica
Fatema Moni Chowdhury
Mohammed Ziaur Rahman
Md Murshed Hasan Sarkar
Fazle Rabbi
Sirajul Islam Khan
Chowdhury Rafiqul Ahsan
, and
Nils-Kåre Birkeland

Recently, we reported the induction of protective immunity by environmental Escherichia albertii strain DM104 against Shigella dysenteriae in guinea pig model. In this study, we assessed three different immunization routes, such as intranasal, oral, and intrarectal routes, and revealed differences in immune responses by measuring both the serum IgG and mucosal IgA antibody titers. Protective efficacy of different routes of immunization was also determined by challenging immunized guinea pigs against live S. dysenteriae. It was found that intranasal immunization showed promising results in terms of antibody response and protective efficacy. All these results reconfirm our previous findings and additionally point out that the intranasal immunization of the environmental E. albertii strain DM104 in guinea pig model can be a better live vaccine candidate against shigellosis.

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