To study the feasibility of evaluating the quality characteristics of banana based on the browning area. The texture characteristics, total soluble solids (TSS), ascorbic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA) concentrations, relative conductivity, polyphenol oxidase, peroxidase, and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activities in banana peels were detected during storage. A linear model was made by principal component analysis and multiple linear regression between the banana browning area and characteristic indices. The results showed that the changes in the physiological characteristics of bananas were significantly different during different storage periods. The main factors that affected the banana browning area were relative conductivity, PAL, TSS, and MDA, indicating that lipid peroxidation, respiration, and metabolism of phenylpropanoids had significant influence on the banana browning area during storage. Thus, it is feasible to predict banana quality based on changes in browning area, which could be a rapid and non-destructive detection of banana quality during storage.