As indicated by the title of this essay, the diverse meanings of Hungarian cultural history confront us with some difficult
tasks. We are called upon to interpret Hungarian culture as a firm and stratified unity, which is stratified in both time
and space, and yet also contains a constantly changing content and dimension. Furthermore, the word “Jewish,” as we shall
see, also has several meanings. It may mean, for example, a world religion, a historical tradition, a colorful collection
of literary texts, a sociological group, a community, or simply a “counternotion,” a label applied to an enemy.