Recovered salt can be reused in the electrorefining process and the final removed salt from uranium (U) deposits can be fed
into a following U casting process to prepare ingot. Therefore, salt distillation process is very important to increase the
throughput of the salt separation system due to the high U content of spent nuclear fuel and high salt fraction of U dendrites.
Yields on salt recovered by a batch type vacuum distiller transfer device were processed for obtaining pure eutectic salt
and U. In this study, the influence of the various temperature slopes of each zones on salt evaporation and recovery rate
are discussed. From the experimental results, the optimal temperature of each zones appear at the Top Zone and Zone 1 is 850 °C,
Zone 2 is 650 °C and Zone 3 is 600 °C, respectively. In these conditions, the complete evaporation of pure salt in 1.4 h occurred
and the amount of recovered salt was about 99 wt%. The adhered salt in U deposits was separated by a temperature slope zone
of salt distillation equipment. From the experimental results using U deposits, the amount of salt evaporation was achieved
more than 99 wt% and the salt evaporation rate was about 1.16 g/min. Also, the mount of recovered salt was about 99.5 wt%.
For the disposal of a high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) glass filter into the environment, the glass fiber should be
leached to lower its radioactive concentration to the clearance level. To derive an optimum method for the removal of uranium
series from a HEPA glass fiber, five methods were applied in this study. That is, chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution, chemical leaching by a 5 wt% NaOH solution, chemical leaching by a 0.5 M H2O2–1.0 M Na2CO3 solution, chemical consecutive chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO3 solution, and repeated chemical leaching by a 4.0 M HNO3 solution were used to remove the uranium series. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after leaching for 5 h by the 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution were 2.1, 0.3, 1.1, and 1.2 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after leaching for 36 h by 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution were 76.9, 3.4, 63.7, and 71.9 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after leaching for 8 h by a 0.5 M H2O2–1.0 M Na2CO3 solution were 8.9, 0.0, 1.91, and 6.4 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after consecutive leaching for 8 h by the 4.0 M HNO3 solution were 2.08, 0.12, 1.55, and 2.0 Bq/g. The residual radioactivity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th in glass after three repetitions of leaching for 3 h by the 4.0 M HNO3 solution were 0.02, 0.02, 0.29, and 0.26 Bq/g. Meanwhile, the removal efficiencies of 238U, 235U, 226Ra, and 234Th from the waste solution after its precipitation–filtration treatment with NaOH and alum for reuse of the 4.0 M HNO3 waste solution were 100, 100, 93.3, and 100%.
The applicability of gas chromatography–triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) for determination of dioxins in soil was investigated. The analytical method was validated based on US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1613 and European Union (EU) Regulation No. 709/2014 for selectivity, linearity of sensitivity, and instrumental limits of quantification (iLOQs). Method development commenced with determination of retention times for 17 native polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs) and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and selection of characteristic ions from GC–MS/MS spectra. The linearity was measured using 1613 standard solutions (CS1–CS5) containing 0.5 to 200 ng/mL tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (TCDD/F) congeners, 2.5 to 1000 ng/mL pentachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (PeCDD/F) to heptachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (HpCDD/F) congeners, and 20 to 2000 ng/mL octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin/furan (OCDD/F) congeners. The correlation coefficient (R2) values ranged between 0.9990 and 0.9999, and the iLOQ values ranged from 0.052 to 0.350 pg/μL for TCDD/F congeners, with a relative standard deviation of 2.7–9.6%. The entire analytical method was verified by analysis of certified reference materials (BCR-529 and BCR-530), and the recoveries were 71.79–103.87% and 81.50–103.12%, respectively. Thus, the GC–MS/MS system provides an alternative to GC–high-resolution MS for the simultaneous determination of TCDD/F congeners in soil.
For the disposal of the high efficiency particulate air (HEPA) glass filter to environment, the glass fiber should be leached
to lower its radioactive concentration. To derive the optimum method for removal of Co and Cs from HEPA glass fiber, four
methods were applied in this study. Results of electrochemical leaching of glass fiber by 4.0 M HNO3–0.1 M Ce(IV) solution showed that the removal efficiency of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs from glass fiber after 5 h was 96.4, 93.6, and 93.8%, respectively. Results by 5 wt% NaOH solution showed that the removal
efficiency of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs after 30 h was 81.7, 82.1, and 10.0%, respectively. Results by repeat 2.0 M HNO3 solution showed that the removal efficiencies of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs after 2 h of three repetitions were 96.2, 99.4, and 99.1%, respectively. Finally, results by repeat 4.0 M HNO3 solution showed that the removal efficiencies of 134Cs, 137Cs, and 60Cs after 4 h of three repetitions were 100, 99.9, and 99.9%, respectively, and their radioactivities were below 0.1 Bq/g.
Therefore, the chemical leaching method by 4.0 M HNO3 solution was considered as an optimum one for removal of cesium and cobalt from HEPA glass fiber for self disposal. Also
the removal efficiencies of 60Co, 134Cs, and 137Cs from the waste-solution after its precipitation-filtration treatment for reuse of 4.0 M HNO3 waste-solution were 88.0, 95.0, and 99.8%.