The spin transitions in two new cationic complexes of iron, i. e., iron bipyridine formate, [Fe/bipy/3]/HCOO/2. 5/HCOOH/ and iron bipyridine tetrafluoro borate, [Fe/bipy/3]/BF4/2. 2H2O have been studied by using Mössbauer spectroscopy. From quadrupole splitting values, at different temperatures, it has been established that both the complexes show the coexistence of both the high spin state and the low spin state at 300 K while complete transformation to low spin state occurs at 77 K. Both compounds were prepared by electrochemical technique.
The crystallization kinetics of a-Se80–xTe20Cdx (x=0, 5, 10, 15) and a-Se80–xTe20Gex (x=5, 15, 20) alloys has been studied
by an isothermal method. For this purpose, conductivity measurements are done
during isothermal annealing at various temperatures between the glass transition
and crystallization temperatures.
Avrami’s equation is used to calculate the
activation energy of crystallization (Ec)
and order parameter (n). It is shown that
Avrami’s theory of isothermal crystallization correctly describes the
crystallization kinetics in the present alloys. The composition dependence
of Ec in these alloys
has also been discussed.
Calorimetric measurements have been performed in glassy Se90M10 (M=In, Te, Sb) alloys to study the effect of In, Te and Sb additives on the kinetics of glass transition and crystallization in glassy Se90M10 system. Kinetic parameters of glass transition and crystallization such as the activation energy of glass transition (Eg), the activation energy of crystallization (Mc), the order parameter (n), the rate constant (K), etc. have been determined using different non-isothermal methods. The composition dependence of the activation energies of glass transition and crystallization processes is also discussed.
methods have been used by various workers to determine the activation energy
of thermal crystallization (Ec)
in chalcogenide glasses using non-isothermal DSC data. In the present work,
the crystallization kinetics of two important binary alloys Se80Te20
and Se80In20 is studied using
non-isothermal DSC data. DSC scans of these alloys have been taken at five
different heating rates. The values of activation energy of crystallization
(Ec) have been determined
by four different methods, i.e., Kissinger's method, Matusita-Sakka
method, Augis-Bennett's method and Ozawa's method, have
been used to calculate Ec.
The results obtained have been compared with each other to see the effect
of using different methods in the determination of Ec.
This work reports the effect of Ge, Sb, Sn additives on the thermally activated glass to crystal phase transition in binary Se90In10 alloy. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) technique is used for this purpose. Different kinetic parameters of glass/crystal transformation have been calculated. The results are explained using the chemical bond approach for the covalent network of such glasses.
A field experiment was carried out to investigate the establishment of phosphate-dissolving strains of Azotobacter chroococcum, including soil isolates (wild type) and their mutants, in the rhizosphere and their effect on the growth attributes and root biomass of three genetically divergent wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.). Four fertilizer doses were applied: 90 kg N ha—1, 90 kg N + 60 kg P2O5ha—1, 120 kg N ha—1and 120 kg N + 60 kg P2O5ha—1, besides a control plot without fertilizers or bioinoculants. Phosphate-solubilizing and phytohormone-producing parent soil isolates and mutant strains of A. chroococcum were isolated and selected following the enrichment method. On an overall basis the mutant strains performed better than the soil isolates for in vitro phosphate solubilization (11–14%) and growth hormone production (11.35%). Seed inoculation of wheat varieties with phosphate-solubilizing and phytohormone-producing A. chroococcum showed a better response over the control. Mutant strains of A. chroococcum showed a higher increase in grain (15.30%) and straw (15.10%) yield over the control and better survival (12–14%) in the rhizosphere as compared to their parent soil isolate (P4). Mutant strain M15 performed better in all three varieties in terms of increase in grain yield (20.8%) and root biomass (20.6%) over the control.
A radiation dose assessment exercise was carried out for the Ipomea batata, Allium sativum, Dacaus carota, and Solanum tuberosum due to naturally available radionuclide 40K, 238U and 232Th in the Domiasiat area of Meghalaya. The concentration of radionuclides in biota as well as corresponding soil was measured
by precipitation method using NaI detector for continuous 12 months. Transfer factor was calculated and was, for 40K(3.96E−05, 3.40E−05, 3.40E−05, 2.70E−05), for 232Th(3.94E−05, 3.20E−05, 3.20E−054.93E−05), for 238U(3.60E−05, 3.89E−05, 3.85E−054.57E−05), respectively in each biota due to each radionuclide. The point source dose distribution
(source ↔ target) hypotheses was applied for the consideration of absorbed fraction. The generated data were modeled using
the FASSET method and obtained dose was 8.42E−03, 8.36E−03, 7.78E−03, 7.74E−03 μGy h−1, respectively and finally compared with the IAEA and UNSCEAR dataset for screening level dose for terrestrial biota.
Radiation dose-risk assessment was carried out for cereal species Brassica compestris var. dichotoma, Oryza sativa var. Shalum1, Zea mays, Lactuca indica, Cumunis sativum, and Clocasia esculanta due to naturally available radionuclides 40K, 238U and 232Th in Domiasiat area. The activity in biota and corresponding soil was measured by precipitation method using NaI(TI) detector.
Transfer factor (TF) was for Oryza spp. (1.00E−01-40K, 8.76E−05-232Th, and 9.11E−05-238U), for Brassica spp. (5.39E−01-40K, 8.17E−04-232Th and 2.96E−04-238U) and for Zea spp. (3.41E−01-40K, 5.84E−05-232Th, 8.87E−05-238U) etc., respectively. A detailed physio-morphological study of the biota and extensive investigation of ecosystem was carried
out for assessment. The data was modeled using FASSET for dose estimation and obtained total dose was 1.58E−04
Thermal decomposition of mono pyridine N-oxide complexe; of cobalt(II), nickel(II) and copper(II) propionates and mono quinoline N-oxide complex of copper(II) ben zoate has been studied by TG and DTA techniques. These dimeric complexes are stable upto 350–380 K and decompose in two stages: (i) successive elimination of the two ligand molecules (mostly endothermic); and (ii) decomposition of the resulting anhydrous metal(II) carboxylates by an exothermic multistep process in air.