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Die historischen Quellen Ungarns bieten eine beträchtliche Menge von Angaben über Trompeter. In Schriftstücken des Königshofes (bis 1526/1541) bzw. des siebenbürgischen Fürstenhofes (1541-1690) sowie auch der Adelsresidenzen und der Städte tauchen zahlreiche Erwähnungen von Trompetern auf. Sie belegen, wie unverzichtbar die Trompete zum Alltag des 16. und 17. Jahrhunderts gehörte. Im Gegensatz zu den Stadttrompetern blieb die Wirkung der Hoftrompeter in Ungarn unerforscht. Die Unterschiede des ungarischen und ausländischen - sehr vereinfacht gesagt: westlichen - Trompeterspiels haben mehrere Zeitgenossen für erwähnenswert gefunden. Die besseren unter den Hoftrompetern  konnten musikalisch gebildet und vielseitig einsetzbar sein, wie die zu Stadtmusikern gewordenen Türmer. Schließlich haben auch die Hoftrompeter in Aufführungen von weltlicher und kirchlicher Musik mitgewirkt.

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Benjamin Rajeczkys Überzeugung war, daß das Zeitalter Mathias' nicht den Beginn einer institutionellen Hofmusik bedeutete. Der Verfasser präsentiert die zur Zeit zur Verfügung stehenden Erkenntnisse über die ungarische Hofmusik zwischen ca. 1400-1450 mit einem Ausblick auf die Zeit vor 1400. Es wird auch ein Versuch unternommen die Eigenarten des Hofmusiklebens während der Epoche Sigismunds und seinen Nachfolgern im Hinblick zu den in späteren Jahren feststellbaren Strukturen zu untersuchen.

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István Udvari (1950-2005)

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The expansion of the Osmanli Turks started in the second half of the 14th cen­tury which led to the conquest of the following independent countries: Byzantium, Bulgaria, Albania, Serbia and Bosnia. The inhabitants of these countries fled westwards and many of them found refuge in Hungary. The liberation of Buda from the Turks in 1686, then of Belgrade in 1688 triggered a series of uprisings against the Turkish rule. In 1688 the centre of the uprisings in West-Bulgaria was Čiprovec and the neighbouring settlements: Kopilovec, Železna and Klissura, all with Catholic inhabitants converted by the Bosnian Franciscans. In 1655 the leaders of the Čiprovec voivodship (district) formed a military league but their plans came out and it resulted in a bloody retaliation by the Turks in 1688. This made many of the Bulgarians flee to the neighbouring countries and even to Hungary. The study, after describing the historical background of the flight, discusses the archival data of the Bulgarian refugees settled in Szentendre, in a town north of Buda. It pays special attention to the history of the “Čiprovačka” church in Szentendre, the first document of which dates back to 1731. It analyses the names of the settlers and the names of their professions which were mostly Turkish. The author also dwells on the role of the Serbs in Szentendre who fled in 1690 from Old Serbia (Raška, Racia) and formed here the centre of the Orthodox Serbian bishopric. Living in isolation from their homeland, the Bulgarians from Čiprovac gradually assimilated to the surrounding Hungarian population.

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In 1688, the inhabitants of Catholic towns and territories in Bulgaria rebelled against the Turks. A part of these people settled in the Bánát area in Hungary. They were allowed to found schools and print books in Bulgarian. These books were published first in the Latin alphabet in complex-letter Hungarian and Kajkavian Croatian orthography, then in diacritical Croatian spelling. Their historical significance is manifested by the fact that the authors of these books gave the local Bulgarian dialect literary status and, showing an example to follow, moved away from the conservative Cyrillic-letter Old Church Slavonic which had been in use for centuries and largely departed from the vernacular.

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The author presents the history of a local language. In the 1750s, in Debrecen religious books were printed for the East Slovakian kalvinists living in the North-East part of the Kingdom of Hungary. These books were written in the East Slovakian dialect of the Zemplén county but in Hungarian orthography. This language had been used until 1923. In Slovakia, however, the adherents of the uniform literary Slovakian language, upon the initiative of the Slovakian kalvinist emigrants settled in the USA, gradually forced the East Slovakian kalvinist dialect out of the ecclesiastical use and in 1955 abolished it finally.

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The Slovak evangelical priest Juraj Palkovič (Georg Palkowitsch), who worked as a professor in Bratislava, collected 240 loanwords borrowed from Hungarian or through Hungarian mediation in his two-volume dictionary published in 1820 and 1821 as a Czech-language edition. His work reflects the language situation of Slovak evangelical people living in Hungary in the 18th and 19th centuries.

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The word hrianka 'toast (bread)', having a Middle Slovak phonetic form, derives from the Proto-Slavic verb grej Z , gr Š jati. This toast is made in several delicious varieties and used even for curing headache and stomach ache. As a personal name, it is dated from 1688. A man called Hrianka changed his name for Hollós in 1908. His son is Attila Hollós, the editor of Studia Slavica. The author of this paper greets him on his 70th birthday.

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The monastery of Csorna (modern Western Hungary), which belonged to the Premonstratensian order and was established circa 1180, received the gift including the copies of the valuable charters from the archive of the Benedictine monastery of Hradisko ( Monasterium Gradicense ) in the vicinity of Olmütz/Olomouc. The earliest original of these charters dates from 1078. There are some documents written in Czech in this collection. The author of the article presents the textual and linguistic analysis of the oldest Czech charter dating from 1398.

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Libri

Ed. with introductions by A. Owen Aldridge urbana: University of illinois press, 1969, 334

Neohelicon
Authors: József Kovács, Borbála Lukács, András Veres, Péter Pór, István Szerdahelyi, István Gránicz, Gyula Király, and Adrian Marino
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