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Toxicological studies on wild animals play an important role in the ecotoxicological examination of pesticides. The applied model tests enable the assessment of toxicological consequences with particular regard to the life and nutrition of wild animals in the ploughed field among plants treated with pesticides. The application of different pesticide formulations on plough-land may pose a simultaneous chemical burden to wild birds. In this model study, manifestations of the interaction between an insecticide and a herbicide were studied in pheasants. The birds were placed on lucerne in cages (48 m2) and sprayed once. The applied doses were: Sumithion 50 EC 1 litre/ha + Fusilade S 6 litres/ha (practical doses) and Sumithion 50 EC 5 litres/ha + Fusilade S 30 litres/ha. The analytically determined pesticide concentration of the lucerne was taken as a basis in the further treatment of fodder. The fodder of pheasants contained the following chemicals: 85 mg/kg Sumithion 50 EC + 510 mg/kg Fusilade S and 425 mg/kg Sumithion 50 EC + 2250 mg/kg Fusilade S. Sporadic deaths observed among the pheasants were of traumatic origin and not due to a toxic effect. The decrease of body weight was significant only at the higher dose levels. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity of the blood decreased significantly in both dose groups. On the basis of the results obtained it can be established that at the dose level used in the practice the pesticides studied do not give rise to a toxic interaction in pheasants.

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Orchiectomy was performed in a 37-year-old Hungarian man exhibiting a swelling in his right testicle. Histology revealed a nodule attached to the spermatic cord, consisting of a granulomatous tissue around sections of a nematode. The worm was identified asDirofilaria repens, an uncommon parasite in Hungary. As the patient had been abroad only in Italy where cases of dirofilariosis in dogs and humans are relatively frequent, it is assumed that the infection might have been acquired in that country 5 years earlier. This is the fifth case, published so far in the world, of such a localization in a human. The human cases of dirofilariosis reported in Hungary are reviewed.

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The purpose of this work was to determine the individual and combined effects of insecticide Sumithion 50 EC (50% fenitrothion) and herbicide Fusilade S (12.5% fluazifop-P-butyl) on the development of pheasant embryos. Eggs were treated by injection of various concentrations of pesticides into the air space on day 12 of incubation. Pathological examination of embryos was carried out on day 23 of the hatching period. Mortality rate, body weight data and morphological alterations were evaluated after the macroscopic examination. The skeletal staining method was used to detect deformities. The two pesticides used in combination moderated the toxic/teratogenic effects of individual treatment.

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Interventional Medicine and Applied Science
Authors: E. Gyurkovics, P. Arányi, Zs. Turóczi, D. Garbaisz, M. Varga, V. Hegedüs, G. Lotz, P. Kupcsulik, and A. Szijártó

Abstract

Introduction

External aortic compression due to acute gastric dilation is a rare etiology of the lower limb ischemia. This phenomenon leads the author to design experimental study for reperfusion syndrome. The lower limb ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury consists of local and systemic components called the reperfusion syndrome. It can progrediate into a multi-organ failure which defines postoperative survival. A postconditioning is a surgical technique, which has a potential to reduce IR injury, therefore to prohibit the development of reperfusion syndrome.

Aim

XXXto examine on an experimental model, whether postonditioning is a practicable technique in infarenal aortic surgeries.

Materials and Methods

Male Wistar rats underwent 180 minutes of infrarenal aortic occlusion with 4, 24 and 72 hours of reperfusion. Postconditioning (10 sec. reocclusion / 10 sec. perfusion in 6 cycles) was applied in one group of each reperfusion time. Blood, urine, and histological (muscle, lung, kidney and liver) samples were collected at the postischemic 4th, 24th, and 72th hour.

Results

The early inflammatory response (TNFa, free radicals) and late local inflammation were reduced by posctonditioning significantly. Postconditioning was able to reduce the remote organ injury of lungs and kidneys, the morphological and laboratorial results showed significant difference between the postconditioning and the control group in these two organs. The method's positive effect on remote organ injury remained long-term.

Conclusion

Postconditioning seems to be an applicable process to reduce both local inflammatory and systemic complications of IR injury following vascular surgeries.

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Clinical, bacteriological and serological examination of 35 calves from the age of 5 to 26 days was performed in a Holstein-Friesian dairy herd endemically infected with Mycoplasma bovis. M. bovis was isolated from 48.6% of nasal swabs taken from the calves at the age of 5 days, and from 91.4% of the same calves at the age of 26 days, indicating the gradual spread of infection. The isolation rate of Pasteurella multocida did not change much, and varied from 28.6 to 25.7%. No P. haemolytica could be detected. In addition to M. bovis and P. multocida, the herd was also infected with different viruses (including bovine viral diarrhoea virus, infectious bovine rhinotracheitis virus, bovine adenoviruses, parainfluenza-3 virus, and bovine respiratory syncytial virus) as a large proportion of the sera of newborn calves contained colostral antibodies against these viruses. In most of the newborn calves severe clinical signs (fever, depression, inappetence, hyperventilation, dyspnoea, nasal discharge and coughing) due to M. bovis infection developed. The clinical signs appeared already on the fifth day of life, and their incidence was the highest at the age of 10 to 15 days. Three calves (8.6%) died as a result of severe serofibrinous pneumonia. The surviving calves showed very poor weight gain (ranging from 1.5 to 3.5 kg) during the first two weeks of life.

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We investigated the HLA-DRB, and DQB polymorphism and haplotypes in RA subjects of Hungarian origin by PCR typing using sequence-specific primers. Molecular subtyping of HLA-DRB1*04 alleles in RA patients showed strongest association with highest relative risk with DRB1*0404. A significantly decreased frequency of DRB1*0403 was observed in patients compared to controls. A significant number of patients carried DR4 haplotypes on DQB1*0302 (54%) relative to DQB1*0301 which was present on 36% of the haplotypes. When compared to controls, the frequency was higher in the latter allele only. Few unique DRB-DQB haplotypes were observed in Hungarian RA patients. In spite of the fact, that the Hungarian population has been isolated linguistically over centuries, a considerable racial admixture has occurred following immigration and invasions, thus the present study confirms in Hungarian patients with RA, previous findings for RA and HLA in European countries.

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Acta Physiologica Hungarica
Authors: P. Horváth, M. Petrekanits, I. Györe, Zs Kneffel, B. Varga-Pintér, and Gábor Pavlik

In the authors’ earlier study the relative aerobic power of Hungarian top-level male water polo players was found to be smaller than that of other top-level athletes, while their echocardiographic parameters proved to be the most characteristic of the athlete’s heart. In the present investigation echocardiographic and spiroergometric data of female top-level water polo players were compared to those of other female elite athletes and of healthy, non-athletic subjects. Relative aerobic power in the water polo players was lower than in endurance athletes. Mean resting heart rates were the slowest in the water polo players and endurance athletes. Morphologic indicators of the heart (body size related left ventricular wall thickness and muscle mass) were the highest in the water polo players, endurance and power athletes. In respect of diastolic functions (diastolic early and late peak transmitral flow velocities) no difference was seen between the respective groups.These results indicate that, similarly to the males, top-level water polo training is associated with the dimensional parameters of the heart rather than with relative aerobic power. For checking the physical condition of female water polo players spiroergometric tests seem to be less appropriate than swim-tests with heart rate recovery studies such as the ones used in the males.

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Physiology International
Authors: M. Fekete, V. Fazekas-Pongor, P. Balazs, S. Tarantini, G. Szollosi, J. Pako, A.N. Nemeth, and J.T. Varga

Abstract

Background

Pathological alterations in nutritional status may develop in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) patients through production of inflammatory cytokines and inadequate diet.

Objective

The aim of our study was to determine the correlation between nutritional status and quality of life of COPD patients.

Methods

We evaluated the nutritional status of COPD patients of Hungarian National Koranyi Institute for Pulmonology using the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) between January 1 and June 1, 2019. Lung function, physical fitness, and respiratory muscle strength were included in the assessment.

Results

Fifty patients (mean age was 66.3 ± 9.6 years) participated in our study. Mean body mass index (BMI) was 26.2 ± 6.1 kg/m2 and mean fat-free mass index (FFMI) was 16.8 ± 2.4 kg/m2. Overweight patients had better lung function values (FEV1ref%: 46.3 ± 15.2) than normal (FEV1ref%: 45.1 ± 20.9) and underweight patients (FEV1ref%: 43.8 ± 16.0). The Modified Medical Research Council Dyspnea Scale (mMRC) was significantly associated with various parameters; strongest correlation was found with FFMI (r = −0.537, P < 0.001), skeletal muscle mass index (SMMI) (r = −0.530, P < 0.001), and 6-minute walking distance (6MWD) (r = −0.481, P < 0.001).

Conclusions

Our results indicate that malnourished COPD patients may have reduced lung function and lower quality of life compared to normal weight patients. Thus, our findings suggest that nutritional therapy be included in the treatment of COPD patients combined with nutritional risk screening and BIA during the follow-up.

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Physiology International
Authors: P Szablics, K Orbán, S Szabó, M Dvorák, M Ungvári, S Béres, AH Molnár, Z Pintér, K Kupai, A Pósa, and Cs Varga

Introduction

The quality and function of movements undergo deterioration due to weight gain. Aerobic training normalizes body weight, improves the health status, and in addition, it is expected to improve the dynamics of movements. The aims of this study were to prove the beneficial effects of recreational physical activities on the movements.

Methods

Participants were divided into five different age categories: second childhood, adolescence, mature age I, mature age II, and aging. Squatting and vertical jumping of the participants were measured at the beginning and at the end of a 5-month training program. These movements simulated ordinary daily movements. Changes in the body were determined by InBody230. APAS 3D system was used for movement analysis.

Results

The results showed significant improvements in body weight, fat mass, muscle mass, fat mass–body weight ratio, muscle mass–body weight ratio, body mass index, body fat percentage, and waist–hip ratio. During jumping, the lifting and sinking of the center of gravity’s (CG) position and its velocity and acceleration were improved. In case of squatting, the results showed significant improvements in the velocity and acceleration of dynamical characteristics of the CG. Other correlations were observed between changes in body composition and the dynamics of movements.

Discussion

The research proved that recreational training optimized body composition and improved the characteristics of CG’s dynamics. The study suggests considerable connection between body composition and the characteristics of the movements’ dynamics. From this point of view, our training program was the most effective in the working age groups.

Open access
Physiology International
Authors: V. Fazekas-Pongor, M. Fekete, P. Balazs, D. Árva, M. Pénzes, S. Tarantini, R. Urbán, and J.T. Varga

Abstract

Background

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth most frequent disease globally, and its worldwide prevalence is projected to increase in the following decades. Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) of COPD patients depends on multiple factors.

Objective

The aim of this study was to identify the most important risk factors affecting HRQOL of COPD patients and to measure how specific clinical parameters can predict HRQOL.

Methods

A questionnaire-based cross-sectional study combined with clinical data was conducted among patients diagnosed with COPD (n = 321, 52.6% females, mean age 66.4 ± 9.5) at the National Koranyi Institute for Pulmonology, Budapest in 2019–2020. The inclusion criteria were age ≥40 years and existing COPD. Multivariate linear regression analyses were conducted on three components of the COPD-specific Saint George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ-C) and on the physical (PCS) and mental component scales (MCS) of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey (SF-36). Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the effects of patient and disease characteristics on COPD Assessment Test (CAT) scores.

Results

We found that frequent exacerbations, multiple comorbidities and tobacco smoking were associated with worse HRQOL. Engaging in more frequent physical activity and better 6-minute walking distance results were associated with better HRQOL.

Conclusions

Our results indicate that the complex therapy of COPD should focus not only on improving lung functions and preventing exacerbation, but also on treating comorbidities, encouraging increased physical activity, and supporting smoking cessation to assure better HRQOL for patients.

Open access