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  • Author or Editor: P. Evans x
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Abstract  

Neutron activation analyses of ground samples of safe-packing insulation have shown that dust from different sources may be differentiated by trace element content. Between 10 and 20 elements were identified in each of 54 samples, and comparison of the activation “fingerprints” offers a good prospect for positively or negatively matching two or more samples.

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Abstract  

After a formal explanation of Mayer's enthalpy balance method as applied to biological reaction rates, the history of its application is traced from Rubner's dog to accounting for the energy of muscle contraction. The introduction of microcalorimetry allowed the method generally to be used for cells in vitro and now particular emphasis can be paid to the growth of cells for the production of therapeutically-important heterologous proteins. In these systems, enthalpy balance studies contribute to defining catabolic processes, designing media, understanding the mechanisms of growth and controlling cultures using heat flux as an on-line sensor of metabolic activity.

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Abstract  

Microcalorimeters to monitor the heat dissipation of bench-scale animal cell cultures on line and in real time require a continuous circuit between the vessel measuring heat flow rate and the bioreactor. The modifications to the transmission lines and calorimetric heat exchanger were to: (i) reverse the usual upward direction of the cell suspension in the flow vessel to downwards; (ii) install an in situ washing/cleaning facility; (iii) use low diffusivity PEEK material; and (iv) maintain thermal equilibration by water-jacketing the transmission tubing. Chemical calibration showed that there was more than a 20% difference between the physical volume and the effective thermal volume. An appropriate thermodynamic system was defined in order to permit enthalpy balance studies.

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Abstract  

Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) combined with an entrained droplet technique [1] has been successfully used on a series of melt spun alloys with deliberate impurity additions to study the nucleation related aspects of secondary phase selection during solidification of dilute Al alloys. This paper illustrates how DSC is a sensitive tool for determining the effect impurities can have on the nucleation of secondary phases, and hence material properties of these alloys. Stepped cooling/isothermal holding profile DSC has also been used in preliminary investigations of the thermodynamic range of formation of the Al—Fe eutectic phases and their nucleation and growth solidification kinetics.

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Abstract  

It is claimed, though not without dispute, that genetically engineered mammalian cells grow more slowly than their progenitor cells because the recombinant gene system causes a metabolic burden. This was found to be the case for CHO cells transfected with expression vectors forcytochrome b5. The slower growth was associated with lower metabolic activity measured by heat flux and mitochondrial activity (rhodamine 123 fluorescence). The calorimetric-respirometric ratio was similar for all cell types, implying that the greater fluxes of glucose and glutamine in the recombinant cells was channelled to biosynthesis. This demand probably restricted the supply of pyruvate to the mitochondria in these cells.

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Summary  

Conditional stability constants have been determined for U(IV) and U(VI) Boom Clay humic acid (BCHA) and Aldrich humic acid (AHA) complexes, under anaerobic and carbonate free conditions. The constants are needed for nuclear waste repository performance assessment purposes. The U(IV) constants were obtained by developing an approach based on the solubility product of amorphous U(OH)4. The U(VI) constants were obtained by applying the Schubert ion-exchange approach.

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Abstract  

Summertime urban PM2.5 was collected on cellulose filters in downtown Toronto, using a customized air sampler (635 l/min). Mass concentrations for up to 19 trace elements/ions were measured by ICP-AES, INAA and IC. Source apportionment was performed on these results including additional carbon and total mass concentrations using positive matrix factorization (PMF). PMF factors exhibited trends that indicated soil (18%), stationary (19%), secondary (48%), and vehicle (15%) sources. Potential source contribution function (PSCF) analysis identified probable sources of the stationary and secondary PM2.5 as originating from the south and southwest of Toronto.

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