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Two Fusarium species were identified in mouldy maize ears with the highest frequency during 2005–2014 in 7 seasons: F. subglutinans (3.1–42.0%) and F. verticillioides (44.1–70.3%). Two other species were also found but with lower frequency: F. graminearum (1.0–13.0%) and F. poae (1–45.7%). In 2005 fumonisin FB1, and in 2013 and 2014 three fumonisins (FBs) – FB1, FB2 and FB3 — were identified in harvest samples. The Fusarium-damaged kernel (FDK) fraction contained almost the totality of mycotoxins (90.0–95.0%), while healthy looking kernels (HLK) contained only below 5.0 to 10.0%. Kernels naturally infected by F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum contained (in mg kg−1) up to 710.00 of fumonisin B1, up to 209.72 of fumonisin B2 and up to 35.72 of fumonisin B3.
The aim of the study was to reveal antioxidant synergism or antagonism between quercetin, rutin and selected tocotrienols in linoleic acid emulsion. The oxidative stress was generated by 2,2′-azobis(2-amidinopropane) dihydrochloride (AAPH) or CuSO4; the increase of the concentration of peroxidation products was monitored using fluorescence probe 2,7-dichlorofluorescein (DCF). The antioxidant activity of tested substances depends on the form of the antioxidant (aglycone, glycoside), its concentration, localization in the emulsion, and the factors generating oxidative stress. The synergistic effect occurred when the effectiveness of individual antioxidant was relatively weak and mainly when the concentration of antioxidants was in the physiologically significant range of 1 μM. We suggest that tocotrienols were regenerated by flavonoids. The synergism benefitted from the proximity of the localization of interacting antioxidants (e.g. the presence of one of the antioxidants at the oil-water interface).