potentially toxic elements were determined in the soil solution of two soils
(acidic sandy and slightly acidic clay loam) treated with phosphate rocks
having high Cd content in a pot experiment. Relative concentrations
characterizing the mobility of metals (expressed as soil solution
concentrations in percentage of their “total” amounts in the phosphate
rock-treated soil) decreased with increasing phosphate rock rates in the sandy
soil. Mn@Sr>Cd@Co were the most, while Pb and Cr the least mobile
elements. The relative concentrations in the clay loam soil were much lower
than in the sandy soil and they practically remained constant with increasing
phosphate rock rates. It was concluded that in the experimental time frame the
environmental risk did not increase with the increase of phosphate rock
The aim of this study was to determine effects of Cd on the structure of ovary, oviduct and uterus after an experimental administration. Animals were divided into three groups. In group A rabbits received cadmium i.p. and were killed after 48 h. In group C Cd was administered p.o. for 5 month. The group K was the control. Decreased relative volume of growing follicles and increased stroma after Cd administration were detected. The number of atretic follicles was significantly higher after administration of Cd. The most frequent ultrastructural alterations observed were undulation of external nuclear membrane, dilatation of perinuclear cistern and endoplasmic reticulum. In all studied types of cells mitochondria with altered structure were found. In the oviduct the highest amount of epithelium in the group with long-term Cd administration was found. Microscopic analysis showed oedematization of the oviduct tissue, caused by disintegration of the capillary wall. An electron microscopic analysis showed dilatation of perinuclear cistern. The intercellular spaces were enlarged and junctions between cells were affected. Mainly after a long-term cadmium administration nuclear chromatin disintegration was present. In the uterus a significant change was determined in the relative volume of glandular epithelium. Increase of stroma was a sign of uterus oedamatization caused by damage in the wall of blood vessels and subsequent diapedesis. After Cd administration alteration in uterus were less expressed, in comparison with ovary and oviduct. Alteration of nuclear chromatin contain following Cd administration suggests degenerative functional changes.
Seeds ensure the survival and dispersal of the majority of vascular plant species. Seeds require species-specific germination conditions and display very different germination capacities using different germination methods. Despite the importance of plant generative reproduction, little is known about the germination capacity of the seeds of the Pannonian flora, particularly under field conditions. Our aim was to reduce this knowledge gap by providing original data on the germination capacity of 75 herbaceous species. We reported the germination capacity of 8 species for the first time. We also highlighted the year-to-year differences in the germination capacity of 11 species which could be highly variable between years. The data regarding the germination capacity of target species, as well as weeds and invasive species, can be informative for nature conservation and restoration projects. Our findings support the composition of proper seed mixtures for ecological restoration and also highlight the importance of testing seed germination capacity before sowing.