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Abstract

With reference to Vanclay (Scientometrics in press, 2012) the paper argues for a pragmatic approach to the Thomson-Reuter's journal impact factor. The paper proposes and discusses to replace the current synchronous Thomson-Reuter journal impact factor by an up-to-date diachronic version (DJIF), consisting of a three-year citation window over a one year publication window. The DJIF online data collection and calculation is exemplified and compared to the present synchronous journal impact factor. The paper discusses briefly the dimensions of currency, robustness, understandability and comparability to other impact factors used in research evaluation.

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Abstract  

An earlier publication and citation analysis of Scandinavian clinical and social medicine 1988–96 reported that in particular Sweden and Denmark loose publication and citation world shares in many medical fields. In well fare systems such observations are alarming, and follow up studies and monitoring are thus carried out in selected medical fields. One such typical field is Psychiatry. It was decided to broaden the scope of analysis also to include the Netherlands with the European Union, USA and the world as comparative baselines. The period covered is 1981–98. This paper reports the findings and their implications on research policy. As in many other scientific fields the Psychiatric research output converges with respect to the US vs. EU in publication world shares. Both Denmark and Sweden suffer from stagnation in absolute publication numbers over the period and loose visibility dramatically in terms of world and EU shares. Finland and the Netherlands show steep growth rates. In terms of citations the picture is identical. Sweden declines dramatically its EU citation share from 13% to 6.5% during the period. The gap between EU and the US citation impact widens with USA on top. Among the analysed Northern EU countries only the Netherlands demonstrates an above-average impact. Other European players, like Belgium and Ireland, increasingly take part in Psychiatric research and show much higher citation impact than the Scandinavian well fare countries.

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Abstract  

The article covers the period 1989–1998. It investigates the results and meaningfulness of applying the Social Science Citation Index (SSCI, ISI, USA) to publication and citation studies of nine selected Social Science research areas in Scandinavia by analysing the international visibility, the research profiles, and relative citation impact. The study demonstrates that the areas Economics, Political Science, Sociology & Anthropology, Social Policy, Language & Linguistics, and, for Denmark and Finland, Information & Library Science as well as, for Sweden, Management studies, are well anchored internationally with a visibility in line with common S&T domains. The journal article world share of the region is increasing rapidly. Other small European countries, like the Netherlands, are even more substantially represented as regards citation analyses. The conclusion is that SSCI, although biased towards Anglo-American publications, actually makes room for valid bibliometric and scientometric analyses of research published by Scandinavian and other smaller countries with English as the second language in journals regarded international by ISI.

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The paper is a bibliometric study of the publication and citation patterns and impact of South African research 1981–2000 in five selected research fields: Animal & Plant sciences; Chemistry; Biochemistry; Microbiology & molecular biology, including genetics; and Physics, excluding Space science. Data are collected from Science Citation Index via the ISI product National Science Indicators. With the exception of Microbiology & molecular biology and Physics the results demonstrate a decrease of SA publications from 1986–1990. The SA world share declines for all five fields. First from the period 1994–1998 the Animal & plant sciences and Microbiology & molecular biology turn the decline into an increase. Absolute citation impact is increasing for all the fields from 1989–1993, except for Chemistry. One reason for the decline is a lower publication output. General & internal medicine, as an supplementary volume-heavy field observed, declines in citations until that same period from which it becomes stable, also in impact, but with a marked decrease in cited paper proportion. In citation world shares the five fields combined show positive signs also since 1989–1993, after which period the international eco-political embargo of SA was lifted. However, Biochemistry and Chemistry continue to decline during the 1990s. Citation impact relative to the world shows a similar pattern, but stagnation appears towards the end of the 1990s in all the observed fields combined. The trends are quite similar to those of Mexico and New Zealand. It is thus highly uncertain if a general citation embargo of SA occurred; yet, in some fields like the Animal & plant sciences, Veterinary science, Chemistry, and General & internal medicine there are signs that a mild citation embargo might have occurred. However, the economic embargo, combined with a significant brain drain, may have had an effect on the publication productivity, after it was lifted. For all indicators Chemistry is undergoing a marked decline during the last decade. This is in line with the negative trends for General & internal medicine, whereas some other medical specialities, biology, economics and other social sciences, the engineering fields and materials sciences keep stable or increase their production. SA is in line with the Mexican development but below that of New Zealand, seemingly losing ground to the developed countries.

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Abstract  

The paper is a bibliometric study of the publication patterns and impact of South African scientists 1981–96, with special emphasis on the period 1992–96. The subject fields surveyed are Physics; Chemistry, Plant and Animal Sciences; and Biochemistry/Microbiology. Scientists were selected from the ten universities of the Eastern Cape, Western Cape and KwaZulu Natal, which vary considerably, with respect to standards of education, quantity of publications, development and overall progress. The general purpose is two-fold: 1) to observe the publication and citation trends during 1981–96, a period which covers significant policy changes in the country, in particular the end of apartheid 1994; within this context 2) to investigate the patterns used by scientists 1992–96 from these different institutions in publishing the results of their research in the form of conference papers or (inter)national journals. The study collected two sets of data through a scientometric analysis of Science Citation Index and a questionnaire. With the exception of Physics, the results demonstrate a decreasing South African world share, in particular for Plant & Animal Sc. publications, and a similar decline of citations starting in 1986/87. Further, the citation impact relative to the world, after a substantial drop 1985–93 probably representing the international embargo period, in 1994–96 reaches the same level as observed in 1985–89. Also, the study shows that there is a direct relation between academic position, research experience and productivity among South African Scientists in the four scientific disciplines.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Lennart Björneborn
and
Peter Ingwersen

Abstract  

Since the mid-1990s has emerged a new research field, webometrics, investigating the nature and properties of the Web drawing on modern informetric methodologies. The article attempts to point to selected areas of webometric research that demonstrate interesting progress and space for development as well as to some currently less promising areas. Recent investigations of search engine coverage and performance are reviewed as a frame for selected quality and content analyses. Problems with measuring Web Impact Factors (Web-IF) are discussed. Concluding the article, new directions of webometrics are outlined for performing knowledge discovery and issue tracking on the Web, partly based on bibliometric methodologies used in bibliographic and citation databases. In this framework graph theoretic approaches, including path analysis, transversal links, weak ties and small-world phenomena are integrated.

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Abstract

Aim  The present article contributes to the current methodological debate concerning author co-citation analyses. (ACA) The study compares two different units of analyses, i.e. first- versus inclusive all-author co-citation counting, as well as two different matrix generation approaches, i.e. a conventional multivariate and the so-called Drexel approach, in order to investigate their influence upon mapping results. The aim of the present study is therefore to provide more methodological awareness and empirical evidence concerning author co-citation studies. Method  The study is based on structured XML documents extracted from the IEEE collection. These data allow the construction of ad-hoc citation indexes, which enables us to carry out the hitherto largest all-author co-citation study. Four ACA are made, combining the different units of analyses with the different matrix generation approaches. The results are evaluated quantitatively by means of multidimensional scaling, factor analysis, Procrustes and Mantel statistics. Results  The results show that the inclusion of all cited authors can provide a better fit of data in two-dimensional mappings based on MDS, and that inclusive all-author co-citation counting may lead to stronger groupings in the maps. Further, the two matrix generation approaches produce maps that have some resemblances, but also many differences at the more detailed levels. The Drexel approach produces results that have noticeably lower stress values and are more concentrated into groupings. Finally, the study also demonstrates the importance of sparse matrices and their potential problems in connection with factor analysis. Conclusion  We can confirm that inclusive all-ACA produce more coherent groupings of authors, whereas the present study cannot clearly confirm previous findings that first-ACA identifies more specialties, though some vague indication is given. Most crucially, strong evidence is given to the determining effect that matrix generation approaches have on the mapping of author co-citation data and thus the interpretation of such maps. Evidence is provided for the seemingly advantages of the Drexel approach.

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Scientometrics
Authors:
Dennis Ocholla
,
Peter Ingwersen
,
Ed C.M. Noyons
, and
Wolfgang Glänzel
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