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An extruded product was made based on oats and dried green pea using central composite rotatable design. Effects of incorporation level of oat flour (OF, 15.86 to 44.14%) and dried green pea flour (DGPF, 7.93 to 22.07%) on the physical and functional characteristics of extruded products based on composite flour were studied using response surface methodology. Second order polynomial equation was used to describe the effect of OF and DGPF on lateral expansion (LE), bulk density (BD), water solubility index (WSI), water absorption index (WAI), and hardness (HD). Results indicated that OF had negative effect on LE, while positive effect on BD, WSI, WAI, and HD. On increasing DGPF, LE and WSI increased, but it had negative effect on BD, WAI, and HD. Numerical optimization resulted in 41.91% OF and 7.93% DGPF to produce acceptable extrudates. The results suggest that oats and dried green pea flour can be extruded with rice flour and corn flour into an acceptable snack food.

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Abstract

In this paper, advanced DC-Link (DCL) based reversing voltage type Multilevel Inverter (MLI) topologies by compensating the difficulties in the conventional MLIs are reviewed. These topologies consist of less switching components and driver circuits when compared with conventional MLIs predominantly in higher levels. Consequently, installation area, total cost and hardware difficulties are reduced by increasing the voltage levels. The unipolar based Pulse Width Modulation Schemes (PWMS) will improve DCL inverters performance. This paper presents unipolar Multi-Reference (MR) based sine and space vector PWMS with single triangular carrier wave for generating required levels in output voltage. Comparison between UMR sine and space vector PWMS for DCL inverter topologies is presented in terms of Fundamental Output Voltage (FOV) and Total Harmonic Distortion (THD). The research tries to establish the survey analysis for single-phase 7-level DCL based reversing voltage type MLI topologies with UMR based sine and space vector PWMs. Finally, to confirm the feasibility of proposed DCL-MLIs in terms of FOV and THD the simulation results are incorporated. Further, the prototype model is developed for single-phase 7-level DCL inverter with Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) based UMR sine and space vector PWMS to authenticate simulation results. The efficiency of the proposed cascaded MLI achieves the value of 99.003%.

Open access

Abstract

In this manuscript, the combination of IoT and Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model for waste image categorization is proposed to categorize the wastes as bio waste and non-bio waste. The input captured images are pre-processed and remove noises in the captured images. Under this approach, a Nature inspired Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model is proposed. Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model is the consolidation of deep convolutional neural network and Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier. Here, deep convolutional neural network is used for feature extraction and Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier for categorizing the waste images. To improve the classification accurateness, Horse herd optimization algorithm is used to optimize the parameter of the Dropout Extreme Learning Machine classifier. The objective function is to maximize the accuracy by minimize the computational complexity. The simulation is executed in MATLAB. The proposed Multilayer Hybrid Dropout Deep-learning Model and Horse herd optimization algorithm attains higher accuracy 39.56% and 42.46%, higher Precision 48.74% and 34.56%, higher F-Score 32.5% and 45.34%, higher Sensitivity 24.45% and 34.23%, higher Specificity 31.43% and 21.45%, lower execution time 0.019(s) and 0.014(s) compared with existing waste management and classification using convolutional neural network with hyper parameter of random search optimization algorithm waste management and classification using clustering approach with Ant colony optimization algorithm. Finally, the proposed method categorizes the waste image accurately.

Open access
International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
K. S. Ajay Venkadesh
,
K. Harish Kumar
,
B. Hariharan
,
A. Arumugam
,
A. Nithish Kumar
,
P. Karthigai Priya
, and
S. Vanitha

Abstract

Raw materials requirement is foremost necessary in construction sector. Due to the increase in construction activities, the raw material utilization is also increased, which may lead to depletion of the resources. The usage of M sand also increases day by day. On the other side, waste disposal is posing a major threat to environment and human health. This paper shows the investigation carried out in manufacturing fly ash bricks made by utilizing vermicompost as an alternative material for M sand, the physical and chemical properties of M sand and vermicompost are studied and they seem to be the same. In this study, an attempt is made to check the feasibility of replacement of vermicompost for M sand in brick making. The brick specimens are casted as per the mix proportions and they are tested for strength and durability at the age of 28 days. It has been identified that the vermicompost replacement at 5% and 10%, the compressive strength of the brick is 7.90 and 7.31% respectively, which is found to be nearer to the strength of the control specimen and the water absorption for all the mixes of the brick casted were below 20% as per IS code. Inclusion of vermicompost in the fly ash bricks will tend to reduce the use of M sand.

Open access

Abstract

Effect of microwave drying on milling, cooking, and microstructure characteristic of paddy rice in comparison to hot air drying was assessed in the present study. Results revealed that modified microwave drying significantly (P < 0.05) affected the milling quality of paddy. Raw paddy had head rice recovery of 49.63%, while after microwave drying, the head rice recovery increased by 6.73% in comparison to hot air drying. Microwave drying brought significant changes in the colour characteristic of rice as it had total colour change of 13.50 in comparison to 10.93 by hot air drying. Cooking time and water uptake ratio after microwave drying increased to 31.46 min and 3.16%, in comparison to 27.05 min and 2.65% for hot air dried samples, respectively. Scanning Electron Microscope images revealed that both hot air and microwave dried rice had a coarse surface and large starch particles, while starch structure was more damaged in hot air drying, however, agglomeration of protein-starch matrix was more uniform in microwave dried samples due to modification of the microwave applicator that prevented thermal decomposition. It was recommended that paddy may be dried using a modified microwave applicator with a shorter duration and a better quality.

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Indiscriminate use of antibiotics in apicultural practices may lead to contamination of otherwise healthy and naturally produced honey. Contamination not only affects honey quality but also pose significant health risks to consumers. In this context, one hundred raw honey samples from India were analysed for presence of antibiotic residues. For determination of oxytetracycline and erythromycin, high performance liquid chromatography and for chloramphenicol, enzyme immunoassay based validated procedures were used. Oxytetracycline and erythromycin with concentrations above maximum tolerance limits were detected in 24% and 2% samples, respectively. None of the samples contained chloramphenicol residues. Although, total dietary intake of detected antibiotics through honey was found to be <1% of their acceptable daily intake values, the presence of antibiotics in honey is an alarming health concern for people following customary honey feeding. The outcomes underline the need of inter-sectoral approaches to create awareness among beekeepers regarding health risks associated with residues of antibiotics in honey and merits of approved apicultural practices. Therefore, to meet global food safety requirements, continual residue monitoring schemes along with enlightenment of beekeepers on scientific beehive management and risks associated with incautious apicultural practices are of vital importance.

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Present study demonstrated the isolation of most promising β-galactosidase producing bacterial strain SB from soil. Morphological, biochemical, and 16s rRNA sequence analysis identified the bacterial strain as Arthrobacter oxydans. Several chemicals, including SDS, Triton X-100, Tween 20, isoamyl alcohol, and toluene-acetone mixture, were applied for extraction of intracellular β-galactosidase from the bacterial strain Arthrobacter oxydans. Among these, Tween 20 was recorded to be most effective. Role of pH, temperature, and shaker speed on production of β-galactosidase was evaluated using Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. According to Box-Behnken analysis, optimum production of β-galactosidase (21.38 U (mg–1 protein)) is predicted at pH 6.76, temperature 36.1 °C, and shaker speed 121.37 r.p.m. The parameters are validated with the nearest value.

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International Review of Applied Sciences and Engineering
Authors:
N. ArikaraVelan
,
V. Deepak
,
N. Dhinesh Kumar
,
G. Muthulingam
,
S. Vanitha
,
P. Karthigai Priya
, and
Sachin Sabariraj

Abstract

In this study, vermicompost is replaced for fine aggregate in geopolymer concrete (GPC). Initially mix design is made for GPC and mix proportion is proposed. The vermicompost is replaced at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% with M sand in GPC. Result indicates the 5% replacement with vermicompost based geopolymer concrete (GPVC) has the compressive strength of 32 N mm−2 (M30 grade) whereas the compressive strength of control specimen made with GPC is 37 N mm−2. Other replacement shows 21 N mm−2, 14 N mm−2 and 11 N mm−2 respectively. The 5% replaced concrete cubes and control specimen are tested at an elevated temperature of 200°C, 400°C, 600°C and 800°C and compared with the control specimen. There is no significant difference observed in weight lost at control (GPC) and GPVC specimen. An elevated temperature, the weight loss is almost 4% at 200°C because of expulsion of water from the concrete. Afterwards only 2% weight loss is observed in remaining elevated temperature. The compressive strength loss is observed at an elevated temperature in GPC and GPVC specimen because of thermal incompatibility between aggregate and the binder. EDX results show M sand and compost contains Si, Al, C, Fe, Ca, Mg, Na and K and it is similar in the elemental composition and SEM image confirms vermicompost contains fine particles.

Open access

The present paper reports that significant genetic variability was evident in Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and phytic acid (phytate, PA) contents in a set of 39 diverse maize genotypes collected from maize breeding programme of hill agriculture, India. The Fe, Zn, β-carotene, and PA concentrations were found to be in the range 19.31–50.64 mg kg−1, 12.60–37.18 mg kg−1, 0.17–8.27 µg g−1, and 6.59–7.13 g kg−1, respectively. The genotypes V335, V420, V393, V416, V414, V372, and V351 were identified to have higher concentration of β-carotene, Fe, and Zn but lower amount of PA. Possible availability of the minerals Fe and Zn was determined using molar ratio between PA as inhibitor and β-carotene as promoter for their absorption. The micronutrient molar ratio showed that Fe and Zn traits could be dependent of each other. Low R2 value revealed relation between β-carotene and kernel colour. The selected genotypes could be considered as potential sources of favourable genes for further breeding programs to develop micronutrient enriched maize cultivars.

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Pollack Periodica
Authors:
V. Saravana Kumar
,
S. Anantha Sivaprakasam
,
Rengasari Naganathan
, and
Saravanan Kavitha

Abstract

The proposed work addresses a novelty in techniques for segmentation of remotely sensed hyper-spectral scenes. Incorporated inter band cluster and intra band cluster techniques has investigated. With a new constrain validate the new segmentation methods in this proposed work, the fast K-Means is used in inter clustering part. The inter band clustering is carried out by fast K-Means methods includes weighted and careful seeding procedures. The intra band clustering processed using Particle Swarm Clustering algorithm with enhanced estimation of centroid. Davies Bouldin index is used to determine the number of clusters in the mentioned clustering strategies. The hyper-spectral bands are clustered in order to reduce the band size. In next phase, the above said enhanced algorithm carried out the segmentation process in the reduced bands. In addition, statistical analysis is carried out in various scenarios.

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