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  • Author or Editor: S. Kumar x
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Aim of this study is to analyze the effect of chronic administration of beta agonist isoproterenol hydrochloride (60 mg kg −1 day −1 ; 30 days) on soleus (a slow type) and extensor digitorum longus (EDL, a fast type) muscles in young mice. Isoproterenol resulted in significant increase in muscle weight to whole body weight ratio with no increase in hypertrophy index in soleus muscle. A significant increase in noncontractile protein collagen is also observed in both muscles but more prominent in soleus muscle. Collagen proliferation is also analyzed on sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) of pepsin soluble and Cyanogen Bromide (CNBr) treated pepsin insoluble collagen. Isoproterenol remolded the myofibrillar proteins in both muscles but significant increase in myofibrillar ATPase activity occurred only in soleus muscle. It is concluded that growth stimulatory effect of isoproterenol hydrochloride is more prominent in soleus than EDL muscle. Isoproterenol augmented the proliferation of non-contractile protein collagen in soleus and EDL muscles. The transformation in myofibrillar proteins caused by isoproterenol might lead to an enhancement of contractile performance.

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Prolonged (120 days) oral administration of a beta adrenoceptor agonist, isoproterenol hydrochloride (dose = 1.5 mg/kg body weight) resulted in an increase in the live weight of growing chicks (Gallus domesticus). Measurement of dry muscle mass and total proteins in muscle homogenates from M. pectoralis major, M. pectoralis minor suggested a muscle hypertrophy largely responsible for this live weight increase. Further, an increase in organ weight and total tissue proteins supported cardiac hypertrophy in chicks as a result of isoproterenol administration. Sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) revealed alterations in actin myosin profiles implying a drug induced change in phenotypic expression of myofibrillar component of both skeletal and cardiac muscle. The results suggest that prolonged treatment of chicks produced changes that were not much different from those recorded immediately within a fortnight.

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Our recent findings revealed that the preputial gland of male house rat contains 20 kDa protein, however, the role of androgen in the production of this protein is not known. Hence, the present study was carried out to evaluate the androgen dependency of 20 kDa protein in the preputial gland of house rat (Rattus rattus) and to compare its presence in female clitoral gland. Further, on castration the amount of glandular protein in male was significantly decreased to a certain extent, while testosterone treatment on castrated males showed an increasing trend. The electrophorogram of male house rat showed six different protein fractions with molecular weights of 90, 70, 60, 50, 35 and 20 kDa. However, the 70, 60, 50 and 35 kDa were absent in female. Among the different fractions, 90 and 20 kDa proteins were prominent. On castration, the 20 kDa protein was disappeared; while on testosterone treatment the protein reappeared.  Thus, the present study concludes that the 20 kDa protein is a testosterone dependent sex-associated protein. Since urinary protein is found to act as carrier for volatile substances in pheromonal communication. The present study suggests that the glandular protein may bind with the volatile compounds produced from preputial gland. Identification of this carrier protein in the preputial gland explores the possibility of developing pheromonal trap for rodent pest management (RPM).

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Abstract

Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci (MR-CoNS) cause infectious diseases due to their potential to form biofilm and further colonization in hospital materials. This study evaluated the antibiotic susceptible phenotypes, biofilm-producing ability, and biofilm-associated genes (mecA, icaAD, bap, cna, and fnbA). Biofilm formation was detected through Congo red agar (CRA) method and MTP method. The presence of biofilm and associated genes in MR-CoNS were detected by PCR. A total of 310 (55.95%) isolates produced the biofilm. Among these isolates, Staphylococcus haemolyticus (34.83%), Staphylococcus epidermis (31.93%), Staphylococcus capitis (16.77%), Staphylococcus cohnii (10.96%), and Staphylococcus hominis (5.48%) were identified. The antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of CoNS isolates indicated resistance to cefoxitin (100%), erythromycin (94.8%), ciprofloxacin (66.7%), sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (66.7%), gentamicin (66.12%), and clindamycin (62.9%). Resistance rate to mupirocin was 48.5% in S. epidermidis and 38.9% in S. haemolyticus isolates. All isolates were sensitive to vancomycin and linezolid.

The prevalence rates of icaAD, bap, fnbA, and cna were 18.06%, 12.5%, 47.4%, and 27.4%, respectively. icaAD and bap genes were detected in 18.06% and 12.5% of MR-CoNS isolates. fnbA and cna genes were detected in 47.41% and 27.41% of MRCoNS isolates. icaAD positive strains exhibited a significant increase in the biofilm formation compared with those that lacked icaAD (0.86 (0.42, 1.39) versus 0.36 (0.14, 0.75), respectively; P < 0.001).

In conclusion, the majority of MR-CoNS isolates were biofilm producers, and S. capitis, which possessed icaAD genes, ranked as the great biofilm producer than other Staphylococcus. The study’s findings are important to form a strategy to control biofilm formation as an alternative strategy to counter the spread of MR-CoNS in healthcare settings.

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A purified alkaline thermo-tolerant bacterial lipase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa MTCC-4713 was immobilized on a poly (AAc-co-HPMA-cl-MBAm) hydrogel. The hydrogel-bound lipase achieved 93.6% esterification of ethanol and propionic acid (300 mM: 100 mM) into ethyl propionate at temperature 65oC in 3 h in the presence of a molecular sieve (3 Å). In contrast, hydrogel-immobilized lipase pre-exposed to 5 mM of HgCl2 orNH4Cl resulted in approximately 97% conversion of reactants in 3 h into ethyl propionate under identical conditions. The salt-exposed hydrogel was relatively more efficient in repetitive esterification than the hydrogel- bound lipase not exposed to any of the cations. Moreover, bound lipase exposed Hg2+ or NH4 + ions showed altered specificity towards p-nitrophenyl esters and was more hydrolytic towards higher C-chain p-nitrophenyl esters (p-nitrophenyl laurate and p-nitrophenyl palmitate with C 12 and C 16 chain) than the immobilized lipase not exposed to any of the salts. The later showed greater specificity towards p-nitrophenyl caprylate (C 8).

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A lipase from the thermophilic isolate Bacillus coagulans BTS-3 was produced and purified. The enzyme was purified 40-fold to homogeneity by ammonium sulfate precipitation and DEAE-Sepharose column chromatography. Its molecular weight was 31 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The purified lipase was immobilized on silica and its binding efficiency was found to be 60%. The enzyme took 60 min to bind maximally onto the support. The pH and temperature optima of immobilized lipase were same as those of the free enzyme, i.e. 8.5 and 55ºC, respectively.  The immobilized enzyme had shown marked thermostability on the elevated temperatures of 55, 60, 65 and 70ºC. The immobilized enzyme was reused for eigth cycles as it retained almost 80% of its activity. The catalytic activity of immobilized enzyme was enhanced in n-hexane and ethanol. The immobilized enzyme when used for esterification of ethanol and propionic acid showed 96% conversion in n-hexane in 12 h at 55ºC.

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Abstract

Background

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) carries a poor prognosis in both adult and pediatric patients. It is a life-threatening condition in newborns. Current recommendations advocate the use of targeted monotherapy as a first-line approach for the treatment of Persistent Pulmonary Hypertension of the Newborn (PPHN). In case of an inadequate clinical response to treatment, an addition of a second or third agent is considered. PAH is usually managed with a phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitor or an endothelin receptor blocker. There are limited pediatric studies that address questions like which class of therapy should be initiated first or if a combination should be initiated together. With this background, the present study was initiated to compare the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of bosentan as an adjuvant to sildenafil and sildenafil alone in PPHN.

Results

A total of 40 patients were enrolled in the study. Out of them, 26 were males (65%) and 14 were females (35%). PPHN was most commonly seen in the 29 (72.5%) of participants with a history of first order birth. Mean duration of symptoms was 14.05 ± 2.06 days. The participants were randomized to two groups. Group A consisted of total 25 participants that received both bosentan and sildenafil and group B had 15 participants that received sildenafil alone. Both groups were comparable in terms of birth weight and present weight, consanguinity, and mode of delivery. Efficacy was determined by the reduction in mean baseline Pulmonary Artery Systolic Pressure (PASP). PASP in group A was 75.56 ± 10.62 mm Hg and in group B was 64.86 ± 12.25 mm Hg which was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). PASP on the third and seventh day in group A were 43.72 ± 8.63 and 24.47 ± 3.52 mm Hg compared to 42.28 ± 9.43 and 27.276 ± 8.38 respectively in group B which was statistically significant (P < 0.05).There were two deaths each in both groups. Two participants in Group A developed liver function abnormalities. None of the participants in Group B had adverse effects.

Conclusion

Most common clinical manifestations were nonspecific. Cardiovocal syndrome was common in PPHN. We conclude that oral sildenafil treatment is a safe, simple and effective treatment for persistent pulmonary hypertension in newborn. Combination of bosentan with sildenafil is more effective and safe in reducing pulmonary artery (PA) pressures in high-risk patients with PPHN.

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