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  • Author or Editor: S. Nandy x
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Abstract  

[18F]-3′-deoxy-3′-fluorothymidine ([18F]FLT) is an established positron emission tomograph (PET)—radiopharmaceutical to study cell-proliferation rate in tumors. Very low practical yield, uncertain and time-consuming high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) purification, are the main obstacles for the routine use of [18F]FLT in clinical PET. To obviate these difficulties, we have developed a fully automated radiosynthesis procedure for [18F]FLT using 5′-O-(4,4′-dimethoxytriphenylmethyl)-2,3′-anhydro-thymidine (DMTThy) and simplified single neutral alumina column purification. The [18F]FLT yield was 8.48 ± 0.93% (n = 5) (without radioactive decay correction) in a synthesis time of 68 ± 3 min. The radiochemical purity was greater than 95% as confirmed by analytical HPLC using reference standard FLT and also free of non-radioactive impurity. Soluble aluminum in the final product was much below the permissible limits. Di-methyl sulfoxide (DMSO), the reaction medium, could be detected in the final product in trace amounts, well below the permissible levels. The synthesized [18F]FLT was sterile and bacterial endotoxin free by appropriate tests. PET imaging study in normal rabbits showed distinct localization of [18F]FLT in organs having rapid cell division rate like bone marrow, guts and snout and the excretion was through the renal route. There were no significant uptakes in bone and brain. The former finding confirms the in vivo stability of the [18F]FLT. This simplified radiosynthesis procedure can easily be adapted in any commercial or indigenous [18F]FDG synthesis module for routine [18F]FLT synthesis without the need of additional automation for HPLC purification.

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Abstract  

1-H-1-(3-[18F]fluoro-2-hydroxypropyl)-2-nitroimidazole ([18F]FMISO), is the most used hypoxia-imaging agent in oncology and we have recently reported a fully automated procedure for its synthesis using the Nuclear Interface FDG module and a single neutral alumina column for purification. Using 1-(2′-nitro-1′-imidazolyl)-2-O-tetra-hydropyranyl-3-O-toluenesulfonylpropanediol (NITTP) as the precursor, we have investigated the yield of [18F]FMISO using different reaction times, temperatures, and the amount of precursor. The overall yield was 48.4 ± 1.2% (n = 3), (without decay correction) obtained using 10 mg NITTP with the radio-fluorination carried out at 145 °C for 3 min followed by acid hydrolysis for 3 min at 125 °C in a total synthesis time of 32 ± 1 min. Increasing the precursor amount to 25 mg did not improve the overall yield under identical reaction conditions, with the decay uncorrected yield being 46.8 ± 1.6% (n = 3), but rather made the production less economical. It was also observed that the yield increased linearly with the amount of NITTP used, from 2.5 to 10 mg and plateaued from 10 to 25 mg. Radio-fluorination efficiency at four different conditions was also compared. It was also observed by radio thin layer chromatography (radio-TLC) that the duration of radio-fluorination of NITTP, not the radio-fluorination temperature favoured the formation of labeled thermally degraded product, but the single neutral alumina column purification was sufficient enough to obtain [18F]FMISO devoid of any radiochemical as well as cold impurities.

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Abstract  

The study is aimed at the analysis and identification of radiochemical and chemical impurities present in [18F]FLT synthesized by a simplified combination-column purification procedure, instead of the currently used HPLC purification. HPLC analysis of the final product showed an anionic radioactive byproduct, which was established as [18F]4-FBSA. The identity of the product was also confirmed by the radiofluorination of nosyl chloride. Mass spectrum analysis of both a decayed sample of [18F]FLT and fluorinated nosyl chloride showed a major peak at 242. We have also investigated the possible interference of this byproduct during PET-imaging in rabbits.

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Abstract  

Carrier free101,105,106Rh,103,104,105,106,110,112Ag and104,105,107,109,111Cd radioisotopes were produced simultaneously by -particle irradiation of palladium target material in a variable energy cyclotron. The radioisotopes produced were extracted and separated from the activated target by LLX using HDEHP as liquid cation exchanger. With the help of -ray spectrometry the presence of several radioisotopes in the activated target matrix and their purity at each step of the separation was confirmed.

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Abstract  

An extraction chromatographic procedure for the recovery of fission product palladium has been developed. The method utilizes Cyanex 471X (tri isobutyl phosphine sulfide, TIPS) impregnated on an inert support, Chromosorb-102. Using this method, quantitative uptake of the metal ion is achieved from nitric acid medium. Thiourea as a suitable stripping agent is suggested. Palladium was estimated spectrophotometrically using Arsenazo III as the chromogenic agent and incorporating a modification in the procedure when the aqueous medium contained thiourea.

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