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  • Author or Editor: Sujit Bhattacharya x
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Abstract  

The characteristics of Indian and Chinese patenting activity in the US patent system are examined by delineating two categories of patents; ‘nationally assigned’, and ‘invented not nationally assigned’ patents (not-nationally assigned patents in short). Further within the above two categories, patents are distinguished and analysed in terms of patent types: utility, design, and plant patents. Indian patents are mainly of utility type whereas China's activity falls in both utility and design.In the ‘nationally assigned’ patents, the different types of institutions involved and linkages are much higher for China. However, ‘not-nationally assigned’ patents of both the countries are dominated by industry and inter-institutional collaborations are sparse. Patents addressing technology sectors (analysis based on utility patents) do not exhibit major differences between the two categories in Chinese patents and address with varying degree all technology sectors. Unlike China, India's ‘nationally assigned’ patents are concentrated in chemical and drugs & medical whereas their ‘not-nationally assigned’ patents are similar to that of China in addressing technology sectors. In design patents, Chinese ‘nationally assigned’ patents mainly cover ornamental design of lighting equipments whereas their ‘not-nationally assigned’ patents are mainly in design equipment for production, distribution or transformation of energy. Further, few firms are active in design patents in both the categories. India's design activity is insignificant in both the categories. The paper concludes by examining the results in the policy context.

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Abstract  

The study investigated industrial interactions in science and ‘applied science’ departments of seven universities in India. Motivating factors and constraints perceived by university departments and the role of the government in initiating and sustaining interactions were examined. Different types of interactions with industry were exhibited in the seven selected universities. Some specific initiatives like creation of special centers to facilitate interaction with industry were observed in the majority of the selected universities. Personal contact was indicated as the major motivator in the initiation of linkages. The government had taken some important initiatives to strengthen the university-industry link. The study points to the need of developing further linkages so that they can lead to successful and mutually beneficial outcomes for both university and industry.

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Abstract  

The present study investigates the use of co-word analysis method to understand the micro structure of a research speciality. This study is done in the area of Condensed Matter Physics (CMP) taking two time-periods, 1990 and 1995. Based on concurrent set of journals occurring in the subject heading list of CMP in these two time-periods, a database is created after downloading articles present in these journals from the INSPEC database. Using words extracted from the titles from the created database, suitable co-word pairs are constructed. These words, and co-word pairs are explored further to understand their linkages with each other through network analysis methods. Dynamics, within the CMP across 1990 and 1995, are investigated through the comparison of the words, co-word pairs and structurally equivalent blocks. The results are projected using multi-dimensional scaling. The important conclusions of this study are discussed.

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Abstract  

Firms operating in science-based technological fields reflect some of the complexities of the science-technology interaction. The present study attempts to investigate these interactions by analyzing patent citations, publication and patent outputs of multinational corporations (MNCs) in 'thin film' technology. In particular we explore different characteristics of knowledge production and knowledge utilization of these firms. The results indicate no correlation between intensity of research activity and patents produced by the MNCs. The relationship between scientific and technological knowledge generation as well as the linkage between science and technology appear to be firm-specific rather than dependent on a technological or industrial sector. The dispersion of journal sources for the majority of patent citations of scientific literature as well as for the majority of scientific outputs is narrow. Basic journals play an important role in patent citation as well as in addressing research of MNCs in thin-film technology.

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Abstract  

Co-authorship analysis is a well-established tool in bibliometric analysis. It can be used at various levels to trace collaborative links between individuals, organisations, or countries. Increasingly, informetric methods are applied to patent data. It has been shown for another method that bibliometric tools cannot be applied without difficulty. This is due to the different process in which a patent is filed, examined, and granted and a scientific paper is submitted, refereed and published. However, in spite of the differences, there are also parallels between scholarly papers and patents. For instance, both papers and patents are the result of an intellectual effort, both disclose relevant information, and both are subject to a process of examination. Given the similarities, we shall raise the question as to which extent one can transfer co-authorship analysis to patent data.

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Abstract

Nanotechnology is promising to be the ‘transformative’ technology of the 21st century with its boundless potential to revolutionize a wide range of industries. Stakes are high as projected estimate of market value and economic and social benefits are immense for countries that can attain competency in this technology. This has stimulated OECD countries as well as emerging economies to channel huge resources for developing core capabilities in this technology. Unlike, other key technologies, recent influential reports highlight China in particular and to some extent India, Brazil and other emerging economies competing with advanced OECD countries in ‘nanotechnology’. The present paper investigates through bibliometric and innovation indicators to what extent China and India have been able to assert their position in the global stage. The paper also underscores the importance of capturing indications from standards and products/processes along with publications and patents to capture more accurately the latent variable ‘performance’. Study shows that China's progress is remarkable; it has already attained leading position in publications and standard development. India is making its presence more visible particularly in publications. China's research is more sophisticated and addresses nano-materials and its applications whereas India's research shows healthy trend towards addressing developmental problems.

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Abstract  

In an earlier study, a methodology was described for identifying Frontier Areas in a research field, i.e., areas which experienced in a particular time period significant increase in research output in comparison to a preceding time period. The application of this methodology was shown by identifying Frontier Areas of research in Physics in 1995. Comparison was done with respect to the outputs in different areas in 1990. Profiles of countries active in the identified Frontier Areas were then constructed.In this paper, attempt is made to reveal the active research topics/themes within these Frontier Areas in 1990 and 1995. The active research topics, which are uncovered, are classified as Frontier Topics. Countries active in these frontier topics are distinguished in each time period. Association among countries and Frontier Topics are observed using the multivariate technique of correspondence analysis. Dynamics are observed by analysing the changes in the profiles of the countries in the two time periods. Results and implications of this study for decision-making and as a policy tool are highlighted.

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Abstract  

The paper presents a methodology for studying the interactions between science and technology. Our approach rests mostly on patent citation and co-word analysis. In particular, this study aims to delineate intellectual spaces in thin-film technology in terms of science/technology interaction. The universe of thin-film patents can be viewed as the macro-level and starting point of our analysis. Applying a bottom-up approach, intellectual spaces at the micro-level are defined by tracing prominent concepts in publications, patents, and their citations of scientific literature. In another step, co-word analysis is used to generate meso-level topics and sub-topics. Overlapping structures and specificities that emerge are explored in the light of theoretical understanding of science-technology interactions. In particular, one can distinguish prominent concepts among patent citations that either co-occur in both thin-film publications and patents or reach out to one of the two sides. Future research may address the question to what extent one can interpret directionality into this.

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Abstract  

This paper attempts to monitor the changes in research priorities in Physics by analyzing the research profile of thirty three countries in major fields of Physics as classified under PACS (Physics and Astronomy Classification scheme). Data is taken from INSPEC (CD-ROM) version under two different time periods—1990 & 1995. Priority Index (PI) is used to understand the priorities of countries in major fields and shifts in their priorities during these two time periods. Correspondence analysis is applied to the matrices of research priorities to understand the multivariate relationships between countries and fields and reveal the dynamics of changes taking place in two time periods. The results and its implications for policy studies are discussed.

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