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Objective of this study was to assess the quantification of osteocalcin (OCN) expression by ovine osteoblasts cultured with different concentrations of sodium fluoride (F) and sodium selenite (Se) to evaluate the interaction of these agents on OCN expression in vitro . We wanted to demonstrate a possible protective effect of selenium on the toxic effect of fluoride. Osteoblasts were isolated by complete trypsin and collagenase digestion from ovine calvarial bone and cultured in DMEM supplemented with 15% FBS at 37 °C in a humidified 5% CO 2 incubator. Identified osteoblasts were divided into one control group (C) and eight experimental groups, which were exposed to different concentrations of sodium fluoride (F; 0, 0.5, 1 mM) sodium selenite (Se; 0, 0.1, 1 μM). At different time points after treatment total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed into first-strand cDNA. OCN mRNA was indirectly measured by real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR (qPCR). OCN mRNA expression in F 1 mM with Se 1 μM group was found to have a high peak at day seven and was lower before and afterwards. Expression of OCN mRNA in all groups except control could be promoted by F and/or Se showing a general upregulation. Furthermore, the toxicity from excessive exposure of osteoblast with F could be circumvented by usage of moderate concentration of Se. Osteoblasts cultured in vitro may have stressful responses to F and Se at the first few days. Low concentrations of Se inhibit the toxic effects of high concentrations of F. Therefore, F and Se could be used as antagonistic factors, which could regulate osteocalcin expression.

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Biologia Futura
Authors: Gaigai Du, Liyuan Wang, Huawei Li, Peng Sun, Jianmin Fu, Yujing Suo, Weijuan Han, Songfeng Diao, Yini Mai, and Fangdong Li

Background and aims

Persimmon (Diospyros kaki) is an economically important fruit tree species with complex flowering characteristics. To obtain accurate expression pattern analysis results, it is vital to select a reliable gene for the normalization of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction data. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal internal control gene among six candidate genes for gene expression analysis in different persimmon organs and developmental stages.

Materials and methods

This analysis was conducted using geNorm and NormFinder software to show differences in the stability of the six reference genes among tissues and floral developmental stages of the same plant.


Although genes that exhibited moderate expression in NormFinder revealed slightly different expression stabilities than those obtained by geNorm, both sets of results showed that GAPDH was the best reference gene in different organs and floral buds at different developmental stages, whereas 18SrRNA was the least stable gene.


Based on the overall ranking, GAPDH is the most suitable reference gene and is highly recommended for gene expression studies in different organs and different developmental stages of persimmon. This study provides useful reference data for future gene expression studies and will contribute to improving the accuracy of gene expression results in persimmon.

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