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Egy Andriolo de Santinak tulajdonítható Krisztus-szobor a budapesti Szépművészeti Múzeumban

A Christ Statue in the Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest, Attributable to Andriolo de Santi

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Szilárd Papp

Abstract

The sculpture, which the extant invoice claims to have originated from the Sant' Agostino church of Cremona, was bought by the museum from Achille Glisenti, a painter and art dealer, in 1895 (figs 1–2). The frontal pose and the compactness of the white marble sculpture of exquisite quality in composition and execution (h.: 52 cm, w.: 21 cm, d.: 16 cm), as well as the finish of the sides and the back clearly reveal that it was designed for some niche. The representation of the enthroned Christ Pantocrator was prevalent in Venetian sepulchral sculpture in Italy in the 14th century, mainly in the 1340s–60s. The Budapest sculpture is most closely analogous with specimens of this strain by virtue of the iconography and style. Just like the analogies, it was probably set in the middle of the longitudinal side of the sarcophagus recessed in the shape of an ornate throne. Although no Christ figure carved separately of the side of a sarcophagus is known, there are at least two specimens of the enthroned Madonna figures far more frequently featuring in Venetian sarcophagi in the same place (figs 3–4). These two Virgin figures were carved for an exceptionally representative type of sepulchral monuments “with acroteria”, which is attributable to one of the most notable local master of the period, Andriolo de Santi.

The closest analogy to the Budapest sculpture can also be found in this circle. Christ Pantocrator adorning the main portal of the San Lorenzo church in Vicenza made by Andriolo's workshop in 1342–44 is almost like a copy of the Budapest work (figs 5–6). It is however hard to decide whether it was made by the same hand or it is a copy. There is yet another carving – that of the enthroned Madonna in the tympan of the portal – that resembles even more closely the Budapest statue in terms of quality, overall form and certain details (fig. 8). Though there are hardly any clues as to the authorship of individual parts of the portal, it is not far-fetched to presume – in agreement with many researchers – that the tympan figures were in all likelihood carved by Andriolo. In this way it is possible to attribute the Budapest sculpture to him, too, and it may as well be presumed that it was made for an above-mentioned representative sarcophagus. Furthermore, the quality even permits the assumption that it might be the prototype for the Venetian Pantocrator series of the 1340s–60s.

All this confirms that the Christ statue and the respective tomb must have been made for a distinguished person. There is however no data in connection with the Sant' Agostino church of Cremona or the related sources that might be linked to this sepulchral monument in any way, therefore the identification of the person is not possible. The client must have been a Cremonese with close contacts to Venice, which may be why he imported the sepulchre to the Lombardian city. The phenomenon fits in well with the overall situation of sculpture in Cremona in the 14th century: there was probably no noteworthy stonecarving workshop in the city, at least all the surviving works are by masters active elsewhere.

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Abstract

The study treats the history of the reconstruction of the choir of the medieval Cathedral of the bishopric of Transylvania in Gyulafehérvár (Alba Iulia, Rumania) in the middle of the 18th century. As the High Choir of the church, which was recatholized in 1716 after having been owned for a long time by protestants, menaced with ruin, along with the new bishop, Zsigmond Antal Sztojka, the Chapter, supported by the Viennese Court as well as the Empress Maria Theresia, made renew the building between 1753–1755. The Choir was demolished down to the foundations and, mainly with the original materials, was reconstructed in the original constructions and forms. This rather singular procedure was motivated by the historical situation. In the principality of Transylvania after the Habsburg occupation of 1687 a slow recatholization process begun, in course of which on the local level the medieval situation was restored. The reconstruction of the Choir can be considered as a part of this process, as instead of a modern Baroque building the exact reconstruction of the medieval building was made.

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A király műhelye: Luxemburgi Zsigmond budavári szobrai és művészettörténeti helyzetük

The workshop of the king: The buda-castle sculptures of Sigismund of luxembourg and their place in art history

Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Author:
Szilárd Papp

The study was originally written for the volume introducing the Medieval Buda (Medieval Buda in Context. Ed. Szende, Katalin-Nagy, Balázs. Leiden [Brill] 2014, to be published). It was written with the aim of giving an image of the present situation of the researches of the Buda Sigismund sculpture findings to the readers abroad. However, beyond this, it also attempts to formulate certain questions and suggestions that could give directions for further investigations in the future.

In 1974 an important finding of sculptures was explored in the field of the medieval Buda Castle. The fragmentary ensemble became by its existing suddenly such a phenomenon, concerning the period of court art of Sigismund of Luxembourg’s reign in Hungary (1387–1437) that one could not even know about before. Intensive researches began after the sculptures had been found, acknowledging not only their Hungarian but Europeanlevel importance, too. These researches had calmed down approximately after one decade, giving answers to some questions, nevertheless leaving even more dilemmas after. It is uncertain where were the sculptures intended to put, in other words exactly where were they erected; we do not know which part of them and how many parts were unfinished; we do not know their grouping, and we can formulate about their themes of topics only conjectures; their dating is strongly vacillating; the date of their devastation and circumstances is not entirely clear; concerning their style connections the opinions are strongly divided. Beyond these problems, because of the important uncertainties concerning the European sculpture, the Buda Castle sculpture ensemble, enriched since 1974 with further findings, could not up to this time incorporate into Europe’s, not even into the Central European artistic overall view.

As it became clear for nowadays, the sculpture-ensemble was found among the ruins of a sculpture workshop at stem neighbourhood of the Royal Palace. The main part of the pieces was never raised, erected, nevertheless they were devoted to the buildings of the Royal Palace and to the Saint Sigismund’s Collegiate Church founded by Sigismund. Although their dating upon stylistic basis for the moment is unsolvable, on the basis of the historical data of the reign of Sigismund, furthermore upon the period of the building of the parts of the collegiate church and the royal castle the workshop’s functioning can be put rather definitely to the second and third decade of the 15th century. On the one hand a part of the sculpture ensemble consists of a serial of smaller pieces of apostles (perhaps prophets) while on the other hand we can see large sized court figures that flocked around the emperor somehow presenting them genealogically, dynastically. Nevertheless, certainly there were further figures depicting saints, representing participants of Biblical scenes. Therefore we have to speak about several programs dealing with the decoration of several properties with the sculptures, sculpture-groups.

The style of the sculpture-ensemble is not homogeneous either, within this group different, partly strong, marked directions are interconnected. The source of the apostle prophet-figures was undoubtedly the Franco- Flemish art around 1400 within which mostly the determinative branch could have been the multi-coloured sculpture of the French royal and ducal courts. As regards the other rest sculptures, according to the researches, they are bound predominantly to the ensemble of the so called Grosslobming group located in Styria and through this way it was interpreted within the frame of Central European art. However, this direction is strongly questionable therefore by all means it would be worth to examine more thoroughly the French origin style having already arisen in connection with them. In the secular theme sculpture of the French royal and ducal courts besides the iconography there are closer relations concerning the types, motives and style than what we can find in either the Austrian or the Central European sculptural materials.

The background that could have served the possible French origin of the majority of the Buda Castle ensemble was the longer 1416 Paris staying of Sigismund. According to the written sources the king received numerous French masters at his service and sent them to Buda. Behind this decision there were probably representational power factors in connection with which it is worth to quote the multiple, emphatic manifestations of the imperial supremacy in Paris against the French king.

Since the question of the origin of the Buda sculptures is mostly unclear, momentarily even in their outline it is not known their onetime possible influence. Because of the time frame of the workshop’s functioning the sculpture-ensemble cannot play the role of the international style’s Central European disseminates – as it emerged previously. However, their role is conceivable just because of their disengaging with that style. For the moment it is unclear but in any case – concerning both the ordering person and the style – the line should be followed in the sense that the Buda figures have to do at several points with the art of Hans Multscher. The mere idea of these possible relations represents well that the sculptures made for Sigismund form one of the most important ensembles of this era’s Central European and possibly even the European art.

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Művészettörténeti Értesítő
Authors:
Júlia Papp
,
Erika Kiss Erika
,
Szilárd Papp
,
Dániel Pócs
,
István Mészáros F.
, and
Edit Szentesi

Summary

Knapp Éva-Tüskés Gábor: Populáris grafika a 17–18. században. Balassi Kiadó, Budapest 2004, 270 oldal, 134 fekete-fehér illusztráció; P. Szalay Emőke: Debreceni ötvösség. Ethnica Kiadás, Debrecen 2001, 189 oldal, illusztrált; “A királyi udvar építkezései Magyarországon 1480–1515 között a dél-német és szász stílusösszefüggések szemszögéből”című PhD-értekezésének vitája; “Mátyás király hatalmi reprezentációja és Firenze az 1480-as években. A Didymus-corvina címlapjának értelmezése és a kódex helye a királyi könyvtár tematikájában”című PhD-értekezésének vitája; “Caylus gróf (1692–1765) és az »Egyiptomi, etruszk, görög, római és gall régiségek gyűjteménye (1752–1766)«”című PhD-értekezésének vitája; “Birodalmi patriotizmus és honi régiségek. Az egykorú osztrák hazafias történeti festészetről szóló írások Josef Hormayr lapjában (1810–1828). I. Kísérlet a hazafias történeti festészet megteremtésére az Osztrák Császárságban (1808–1813)”című PhD-értekezésének vitája;

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