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The aim of the present study is a better understanding of the distribution and formation of salt efflorescences by mineralogical examination. Dominant sodium sulphate and sodium chloride surface efflorescences were selected for investigation. 24 samples were collected between 1999 and 2005 from 16 sites. The soil types were solonchak and meadow solonetz.Basic soil and groundwater analyses were performed according to the standard methods. Minerals were determined by X-ray diffractometry and SEM combined with microanalysis. The evaporation experiments were carried out in a Sanyo Versatile 350 HT environmental test chamber.It was concluded that common sulphate salts form rare and unique mineral associations on salt affected soils in Hungary.Comparing the groundwater compositions and the mineral associations of surface efflorescences or that of precipitated evaporites of groundwaters, the conclusion can be drawn that groundwater composition is reflected much better by the mineral association of experimentally precipitated evaporates of the groundwater than by the mineral associations of surface efflorescences. These differences suggest that the soil matrix may have an effect on the crystallization of minerals (e.g. gypsum, thenardite) in the efflorescences. The differences also suggest that in the surface efflorescences the precipitation process does not come to the end in all cases (minerals with high solubility are missing).Concerning the data on groundwater level depths in case of different (sodium carbonate versus sodium sulphate and sodium chloride) efflorescences, there is a tendency of declining groundwater table in the sequence of these soils. This difference can be explained by the difference (increase) in the solubility of various salt minerals.It was recognized that the change in the major component of surface efflorescenes in time (i.e. the sodium carbonate and sodium carbonate chloride versus sodium sulphate efflorescences before and after 1998) can be explained by the decline of the groundwater level and by the decreasing hydromorphic influence in the lowland area during the 19th and 20th century.Finally it can be stated that the presented research — which mainly focused on mineralogical aspects — has contributed to the earlier knowledge on surface salt efflorescences, which was based only on their chemical composition.

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Agricultural goods obtained and produced in Hungary have played an important role in the markets of Western Europe. By utilizing the ecological potentials of the Carpathian Basin, local inhabitants are in the position to produce considerable food surpluses in addition to meeting their own demands. With agricultural production becoming more and more intensive in Hungary, the application of mineral fertilizers also started to increase slowly from the 1960’s. From the mid-1970’s a uniform sampling, soil testing and fertilization extension system was created together with its own institutional and laboratory testing network. The intensive use of mineral fertilizers in Hungary lasted from the mid-1970’s to the last quarter of the 1980’s, during which an average amount of 230 kg·ha -1 NPK fertilizer was applied. In this period the so-called “build-up” fertilization was applied in conformity with the improvement of all other elements involved in the production technology, which was also clearly expressed in the agro-political objectives of those days aiming to obtain higher yields. At that time the nutrient supply and nutrient base of soils in Hungary increased clearly, so the production technology could no longer limit higher yields. In 1990 agriculture changed fundamentally and radically in Hungary, and the same was valid for nutrient supplies as well. At the beginning of the 1990’s there was a sudden decrease in the level of mineral fertilizer application (to below 40 kg NPK active ingredients·ha -1 ), followed by a slow increase, which has reached the level of almost 70 kg·ha -1 by today. In the meantime the animal stock in Hungary has decreased and consequently the amount of manure has also fallen. All in all, the nutrient balance of Hungarian soils has always been negative since 1989. Due to the changes in its structure and ownership over the past twenty years or so, it has become very difficult to obtain reliable information about Hungarian agriculture. The Soil Resources Management General Partnership (in Hungarian: Talajerőgazdálkodás Kkt.) conducts extension work based on soil sampling and has a continuous flow of data on over thirty thousand hectares, beginning at the end of the 1970’s. Based on the analyses of these data it can be stated that the extra amount of nutrients over balance, applied during the period of replenishment (until the change in regimes) has been „removed” from the soil over the past fifteen years, consequently the Hungarian nutrient balance has become negative again. This kind of fertilization practice cannot be sustained in Hungary, as the maintenance of the production potential of Hungarian soils is far from being resolved at the moment; it poses risks to and questions sustainability, as well as it may cause a very serious competitive disadvantage to the country.

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The applicability of the chloroform fumigation extraction method was tested for detecting soil microbial biomass and p-nitrophenyl phosphate (pNP) for acid phosphatase activity to study their response to heavy metal pollution in the rhizosphere soil of planted willow (Salix sp.).   The experimental site was located in the Toka River Valley (North-East Hungary) along the riverbank that had been severely polluted by flooding. The river had transported heavy metal and arsenic ions from several heaps deposited imprudently near a historic lead and zinc mining site. A phytoremediation experiment was set up by planting willow trees with the aim of extracting toxic elements from the soil. A strong significant difference between the control and the metal-contaminated rhizosphere soils resulted much lower microbial biomass values in the polluted soils, which suggests disturbance in the organic matter transformation dynamics. A significant increase in acid phosphomonoesterase activity was determined in the soil due to the pollution. The phosphatase enzyme production of living organisms may be stimulated by the measured higher moisture content and significantly lower LE-soluble phosphorus content of the polluted soil samples. The correlation established between soil water content and phosphatase activity was positive (r = +0.85), while that between LE-P content and phosphatase activity was negative (r = -0.69). The most important stimulating effect was attributable to the lower available phosphorus content, resulting from the heavy metal (Pb, Zn) content of polluted soil. Both measured biological parameters therefore were suitable for indicating soil pollution, but the change was adverse, the biomass decreased, while phosphatase activity increased. Microbial biomass and phosphatase activity were not correlated, indicating the different account of ecological factors that alter the biological properties of a soil.

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Agrokémia és Talajtan
O. Gazdag
L. Ködöböcz
T. Szili-Kovács
, and
A. Murányi
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A normalization method was tested for the detection of low level chromium contamination in the soil of the Tisza River Floodplain in Hungary. The soils' so-called “total” metal concentration (strong acid extractable fraction) is the basis of many environmental evaluation methods, soil tests.  In the floodplain soils cadmium, lead, zinc and copper occur in elevated concentrations, but their chromium concentration is not significantly higher than that of the control soils.  The normalization method makes it possible to calculate the anthropogenic and geogenic chromium concentration in soil. Anthropogenic chromium was not detectable on the control sites, but a significant amount (4-14 mg/kg) was found in the floodplain soil samples. The applied normalization method proved the low level chromium contamination in the floodplain.

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