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The influence of atrophic rhinitis (AR) and pneumonia on growth performance was assessed in a conventional farrow-to-finish pig farm affected by both diseases. All tested pigs (n = 138) were individually weighed at birth, at weaning, at moving to the growing/finishing unit, and at slaughtering. The extent (grade) of turbinate atrophy and lung consolidation attributable to pneumonia was determined in each pig at slaughter. A negative correlation was found between birth weight and the prevalence of nasal lesions at slaughter, suggesting that pigs born with smaller weight may be more susceptible to AR. The growth performance of the pigs also showed a negative correlation with the degree of turbinate atrophy. In the nursery period, the average daily gain (ADG) of pigs with moderate/severe turbinate atrophy was 13.3% lower than that of animals with healthy snouts. In the finishing period, pigs with mild AR lesions had an ADG reduction of 6.2%, while pigs with severe AR lesions had a significant, 9.4% reduction in ADG as compared to the AR-free pigs. The extent of weight gain reduction over the whole life cycle was very similar (approximately 6%) in the pigs having either AR or pneumonia alone. In those pigs where both respiratory diseases were present, their effects seemed to be added up (11.5%); however, nasal lesion scores and percentage of lung consolidation did not show statistically apparent interactive effects on growth performance.

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A total of 146 Pasteurella multocida strains isolated from swine in Hungary in the last 20 years were examined. Biochemical characterisation and PCR-based techniques were used to determine species, subspecies, biovar, capsule type and presence of the toxA gene. Eighty-seven percent of the isolates belonged to P. multocida ssp. multocida , and 98% of these had biovar 3 or were trehalose-or lactose-fermenting or ornithine decarboxylase negative variants of that. Ten percent of the strains were P. multocida ssp. septica , and within this group 80% of the strains showed sorbitol-negative biovars (5, 6 and 7). The rest of the strains (20%) were lactose positive. Only 3% of the porcine isolates were P. multocida ssp. gallicida and 3 out of the 4 strains belonged to the dulcitol-fermenting biovar 8. Using a capsule-specific multiplex PCR, 60% of the strains belonged to capsule type D, 38% to capsule type A, and only 1 isolate had capsule type F. In contrast with data published in the literature, only 3% of capsule type D isolates carried the toxA gene, while this ratio was 41% for the type A strains. A remarkable regional distribution of toxA gene positive strains was observed. All but two isolates were found in swine herds located in the Transdanubian region, separated from other parts of Hungary by the river Danube.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
T. Magyar
,
F. Kovács
,
T. Donkó
,
H. Bíró
,
R. Romvári
,
Melinda Kovács
, and
I. Repa

Computed tomography (CT), a non-invasive visualisation technique was applied for imaging the bony structures of the nasal cavity of pigs, and compared to the traditional scoring system of turbinate atrophy in swine. Twenty-three 27-week-old pigs representing various stages of turbinate atrophy were used. Nasal structures were visually scored on CT scans and transversal cuts of the noses at the level of the first upper premolar teeth using the same scoring system in both cases. A tissue/air area ratio was also determined based on density differences. A highly significant correlation was found between visual scoring of CT images and transversal cuts of pig noses (r = 0.98, p < 0.0001) as well as between visual scoring of CT images and tissue/air area ratio determination (r = -0.82, p < 0.0001).

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The effect of dermonecrotic toxin (DNT) expression of Bordetella bronchiseptica was studied in mice by comparing the pathology induced by a wild type strain with that induced by an isogenic DNT- strain in which part of the structural gene has been replaced by an antibiotic resistance cassette. While extracts of strain B58 proved toxic in intravenously inoculated mice, similar extracts from strain B58GP had lost toxic activity. The parent (B58) and the mutant (B58GP) strains of B. bronchiseptica each possessed comparable virulence for mice. These findings confirmed that DNT production was successfully abolished in strain B58GP while other virulence characteristics required for pathogenicity in mice remained intact, at a comparable level to the parent strain. Turbinate atrophy was observed in mice infected with the DNT+ strain, but not in those infected with the DNT-strain. This indicates that DNT is the cause of turbinate atrophy in the mice and not other factors produced by phase I strains of B. bronchiseptica. B. bronchiseptica DNT showed a lienotoxic effect (lymphocyte depletion and a reduction in the intensity of extramedullar haemocytopoieis) that is considered to adversely alter the immune function of the host animal. In mice infected with strain B58GP, catarrhal pneumonia with characteristic lympho-histiocytic peribronchial and perivascular infiltration was noticed. In mice infected with strain B58, large necrotic areas were seen surrounded by an inflammatory reaction. The DNT appears to directly damage lung tissues, at least in mice. DNT production seems to enhance the establishment of B. bronchiseptica in the lungs, presumably by reducing the local resistance and causing severe local damage to the lung tissues.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
L. Veress
,
Zs. Tasi
,
T. Pécsi
,
S. Babik
,
Irén Horváth
, and
K. Magyar

In a Prolific Merino nucleus herd of 200 ewes the ovulation rate (OR) test results obtained in 169 animals between 1988 and 1993 were compared with those of 113 ewes from the same herd in 1996. Whereas earlier the ratio of individuals showing an OR ≥ 4 was only 32%, that of the group checked in 1996 was 59%. This increase could be attributed to 40 ewes, both of whose parents had proven to be homozygous carriers of the prolific gene. To develop the Prolific Merino breed, 21 Booroola Merino rams were imported from New Zealand, and mostly their frozen semen was used. Of these rams, one was not a prolific gene carrier, 8 were homozygous carriers, 10 were heterozygous carriers and two had not been identified yet. Of the 36 home-bred rams, 9 proved to be homozygous by parents, 11 heterozygous, 8 homozygous, one proved to be a non-carrier, and 7 rams and their frozen semen were to be progeny tested. Six thousand doses of frozen semen from a total of 33 animals (16 imported rams and their 17 home-bred offspring) are stored in plastic straws. Sixty-three % of this is semen reserve from rams of the FecBFecBgenotype, belonging to 10 ram lines. The remaining 37% is gene reserve intended for creating homozygous ram lines. Only one ram (no. 3244) was bought for the nucleus herd, the other ram lines were introduced into the herd by assortative mating, using intrauterine insemination. The average conception rate found after 472 intrauterine inseminations was 53% with large (occasionally 10-100%) individual ram differences.

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Physiology International
Authors:
K Galamb
,
B Szilágyi
,
OM Magyar
,
T Hortobágyi
,
R Nagatomi
,
M Váczi
, and
J Négyesi

Aims

Right- and left-side-dominant individuals reveal target-matching asymmetries between joints of the dominant and non-dominant upper limbs. However, it is unclear if such asymmetries are also present in lower limb’s joints. We hypothesized that right-side-dominant participants perform knee joint target-matching tasks more accurately with their non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants.

Methods

Participants performed position sense tasks using each leg by moving each limb separately and passively on an isokinetic dynamometer.

Results

Side-dominance affected (p < 0.05) knee joint absolute position errors only in the non-dominant leg but not in the dominant leg: right-side-dominant participants produced less absolute position errors (2.82° ± 0.72°) with the non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant young participants (3.54° ± 0.33°).

Conclusions

In conclusion, right-side-dominant participants tend to perform a target-matching task more accurately with the non-dominant leg compared to left-side-dominant participants. Our results extend the literature by showing that right-hemisphere specialization under proprioceptive target-matching tasks may be not evident at the lower limb joints.

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Acta Veterinaria Hungarica
Authors:
Margit Kulcsár
,
Gabriella Dankó
,
H. G. I. Magdy
,
J. Reiczigel
,
T. Forgach
,
Angella Proháczik
,
Carole Delavaud
,
K. Magyar
,
Y. Chilliard
,
L. Solti
, and
Gy. Huszenicza

Maternal plasma leptin is elevated in ewes during pregnancy. The authors studied whether there was any relation between maternal plasma leptin and insulin concentrations, the number of fetuses and the circulating and faecal levels of gestagens. At the end of the breeding season in January the ovarian activity of Prolific Merino ewes was induced/synchronised with gestagen + eCG treatment. Ewes were inseminated artificially (AI) by laparoscopy. Blood and faecal samples were collected before AI (day 0) and again 41, 81 and 101 days later. The plasma levels of leptin (pL), insulin and progesterone (pP4), and the faecal P4 metabolite (P4-met) content were determined. The day 0 level of pL was significantly higher in pregnant (n = 24) than in non-pregnant ewes (n = 32). By day 41 the pL of pregnant animals had doubled, it showed a further moderate increase on day 81, and decreased slightly thereafter. During pregnancy pP4 and faecal P4-met rose continuously and were positively correlated at all stages. The mean levels of pL and pP4 and the faecal content of P4-met were lower in ewes bearing single (n = 12) than in those with 2 (n = 6) or 3-5 fetuses (n = 6). Analysis of variance demonstrated significant differences according to the number of fetuses in the pL and pP4, but not in P4-met (p = 0.042, 0.044, and 0.051, respectively). Leptin showed positive correlation with insulin before the AI but not during pregnancy. On days 41 and 81 pL showed a slight positive correlation with P4 and P4-met, which decreased slightly by day 101. This study shows that although leptinaemia is affected by the number of fetuses and the level of P4, pregnancy stage is a more important regulator than these additional factors.

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Aims

The aim of this study was to examine the effects of gender on the relationship between Functional Movement Screen (FMS) and treadmill-based gait parameters.

Methods

Twenty elite junior athletes (10 women and 10 men) performed the FMS tests and gait analysis at a fixed speed. Between-gender differences were calculated for the relationship between FMS test scores and gait parameters, such as foot rotation, step length, and length of gait line.

Results

Gender did not affect the relationship between FMS and treadmill-based gait parameters. The nature of correlations between FMS test scores and gait parameters was different in women and men. Furthermore, different FMS test scores predicted different gait parameters in female and male athletes. FMS asymmetry and movement asymmetries measured by treadmill-based gait parameters did not correlate in either gender.

Conclusion

There were no interactions between FMS, gait parameters, and gender; however, correlation analyses support the idea that strength and conditioning coaches need to pay attention not only to how to score but also how to correctly use FMS.

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