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The effect of reduction of pressure on the shapes of the TG, DTG and DTA curves and the mass-spectra of hydroxide and carbonate phases was investigated in some typical Hungarian red muds. The pressure change caused different decomposition rates of the phases and resulted in better separation of the overlapping thermal curves; this led to advantages as regards phase analysis. For phase analysis the red muds were extracted with water, and the extracts and solid residues were identified by IR- and X-ray methods.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
S. Papp
L. Kőrösi
B. Gool
T. Dederichs
P. Mela
M. Möller
, and
I. Dékány


Gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were prepared by the reduction of HAuCl4 acid incorporated into the polar core of poly(styrene)-block-poly(2-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P2VP) copolymer micelles dissolved in toluene. The formation of Au NPs was controlled using three reducing agents with different strengths: hydrazine (HA), triethylsilane (TES), and potassium triethylborohydride (PTB). The formation of Au NPs was followed by transmission electron microscopy, UV–Vis spectroscopy, isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). It was found that the strength of the reducing agent determined both the size and the rate of formation of the Au NPs. The average diameters of the Au NPs prepared by reduction with HA, TES, and PTB were 1.7, 2.6, and 8 nm, respectively. The reduction of Au(III) was rapid with HA and PTB. TES proved to be a mild reducing agent for the synthesis of Au NPs. DLS measurements demonstrated swelling of the PS-b-P2VP micelles due to the incorporation of HAuCl4 and the reducing agents. The original micellar structure rearranged during the reduction with PTB. ITC measurements revealed that some chemical reactions besides Au NPs formation also occurred in the course of the reduction process. The enthalpy of formation of Au NPs in PS-b-P2VP micelles reduced by HA was determined.

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