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In this study, detection of an obligate aerobic, thermophilic and acidophilic bacterium, the sporeforming Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris was performed by determination of its specifc metabolite, guaiacol. Since its spores have been shown to resist conventional pasteurization, it has become a potential spoilage concern for fruit and vegetable juices, mainly for apple and orange juices. Detection of guaiacol was carried out by using an NST 3320 type electronic nose, and other methods, such as peroxidase-based enzymatic method with UV-Vis spectrophotometer, SPME-GC-MS technique and an untrained sensory panel were also applied. The results indicated that based on their detection limit the methods can be ordered in the following way: SPME-GC-MS (detection limit: <0.5 ppm)<sensory evaluation (detection limit: 0.5–1 ppm)<spectrophotometric method=electronic nose technique (detection limit: 1.25–2.5 ppm).

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High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) technology, as a promising alternative of thermal-treatment and chemical preservatives, can be used to produce minimally processed foods. It has the advantage of affecting only non-covalent bonds of macromolecules in foods, and thus preserves nutritional components, taste, and flavour exceptionally well. However, HHP also influences enzymatic reactions of food. Although some of these changes are often beneficial, monitoring the potential effects of high pressure treatments — especially in the field of product and technology development — is essential. The aim of this study was to point out some parameters of high hydrostatic pressure technique (pressure, temperature, build-up time, holding time, number of cycles) that can substantially impact the sensory properties of treated products.

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An experiment was performed to study the effect of different vegetable oils containing high proportions of PUFA (5% soybean oil, SBO; and sunflower oil, SFO; respectively, in the DM of concentrate) or grass silage (150 g DM/d/animal, GSL) on the level of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers and other C18 fatty acids in muscle and adipose tissues of growing lambs. Control animals were fed on the same diet as SBO or SFO groups; however, instead of vegetable oils hydrogenated palm oil containing low level of PUFA was applied. In both muscle and adipose samples tested c-9, t-11 C18:2 showed the highest levels among the CLA isomers, however, t-10, c-12 CLA could also be measured in lower proportions. Considering vegetable oil supplementations, only SBO resulted in a significantly higher level of c-9, t-11 CLA in the triceps brachii muscle as compared to the control. Such a difference could not be detected in either the gracilis muscle or in the adipose tissue samples. However, lambs fed on the GSL diet had significantly higher c-9, t-11 CLA levels in both the triceps and gracilis muscles and lower proportion of t-10, c-12 CLA in the adipose than those fed on the control, SBO and SFO diets, respectively. Concerning C18 fatty acids other than CLA, SFO lambs showed significantly higher proportions of C18:1n-9 than those of control animals in both muscles and perirenal fat tested. However, level of C18:0 in the adipose tissue of GSL lambs was significantly lower than that of the animals fed both control or vegetable oil supplemented diets. Results of this experiments show that different dietary fatty acid sources have various potential to increase CLA contents in the meat of lambs. In addition to vegetable oils rich in PUFA, grass silage may be good dietary source for nutritional manipulation of the fatty acid composition of lamb meat.

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Abstract

Tendencies of foodborne outbreaks show that the number of illnesses caused by Campylobacter spp. has been increasing recently in the European Union and in Hungary as well. However, the epidemiological statuses of Member States are diverse. There are several aspects to be investigated by competent authorities before the introduction of interventions. Methods supporting food safety decision making range from quick and easy techniques to complex, resource consuming approaches. The aim of the present study was the implementation of an evaluation and ranking system for a risk and its causes occurring in the broiler production chain. Data and information available in scientific literature were converted to a structured easy-to-use evaluation that supports decision making and helps structured data processing.

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Experiments were performed to study changes caused by irradiation or high hydrostatic pressure pasteurization of liquid egg white by differential scanning calorimetry, spectrofluorimetry, electronic nose measurements and NIR-spectrometry. The non-thermal pasteurization treatments were also assessed in relation to loss of carotenoid content, and lipid- and cholesterol oxidation of liquid egg yolk. Unlike radiation pasteurization, high pressure processing caused protein denaturation in egg white, which manifested in changes of its DSC-thermogram and intrinsic tryptophan fluorescence. Electronic nose testing showed changes of the head-space volatile composition of egg albumen, particularly as a function of radiation treatment. Both treatments caused changes in the NIR-spectrometric “fingerprint” of the liquid egg white. Various chemometric analyses of the results of the latter instrumental methods, particularly statistical techniques developed by the group of one of the co-authors of this article, demonstrated the potential for detection and characterization of the applied non-thermal processing techniques on liquid egg white. Irradiation induced more carotenoid degradation and lipid oxidation in liquid egg yolk than pressure processing.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors:
R. Tömösközi-Farkas
,
Zs. Polgár
,
M. Nagy-Gasztonyi
,
V. Horváth
,
T. Renkecz
,
K. Simon
,
F. Boross
,
Z. Fabulya
, and
H. Daood

Anti-nutritive components in multi resistant potato cultivars were investigated in relation to conventional and organic farming for three years. Glycoalkaloids, nitrate, nitrite, asparagine, and glutamine contents of tubers were examined. Farming technology was found not to have an effect on the level of glycoalkaloids, which was influenced mostly by the genotype and season. Nitrogen fertilisation caused significant increase in nitrate, asparagine, and glutamine contents as compared to organic farming. Nitrite content was found to be more independent of farming technologies than nitrate. Tubers of cultivar Rioja had the lowest nitrate content irrespective of season or technology. In conclusion, the absolute amount and changes of different anti-nutritive components of potato tubers were influenced differently by the technology, genotype, and season in a complex manner. Organic farming had no effect on the glycoalkaloid content, but the nitrate levels had a tendency to be lower compared to conventional farming. This can be seen as a positive effect of organic farming.

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