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Porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) is one of the important pathogens that may cause severe diarrhoea in piglets. In this study, the nucleocapsid (N) gene of a Chinese PEDV isolate designated HLJBY was cloned. The phylogeny of PEDV strains was investigated by constructing a phylogenetic tree based on the N protein sequences. The results indicate that there are two major groups of Chinese PEDVs, a Japanese PEDV group and a Korean PEDV group. High-level expression of the N protein was achieved in Escherichia coli. The immunoreactivity between PEDV particles or the bacterially expressed N protein and rabbit anti-PEDV serum was confirmed by immunofluorescence assays and Western blot. Both PEDV N protein and the polyclonal antibody generated in this study are valuable diagnostic reagents for PEDV surveillance.

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An outbreak of simultaneously occurring haemangiomas, leiomyosarcoma and myeloma was observed in a commercial layer flock in China. The sick chickens were extremely thin and dehydrated. Scattered haemangiomas were found on the claws, breast and wings. At necropsy, haemangiomas and some other nodular tumours were also found in the internal organs. In addition, diffuse enlargement of the liver and spleen appeared in some birds. Histopathologically, haemangiomas were typically cavernous haemangiomas and haemangioendothelioma. In the diffusely swollen liver and spleen, multifocal or widespread marrow tumour cells filled with ball-like acidophilic particles in cytosol were observed, which are the characteristic pathological changes of avian myelocytomatosis. The nodular tumour cells formed by muscle bundles were of variable size, irregular shape, poorly differentiated and malaligned. Immunohistochemistry for vimentin, cytokeratin, actin (smooth muscle) and actin (sarcomeric) and Masson’s staining confirmed the different cell lineage of the nodular tumour, thus leading to the diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma. The seroprevalence of avian leukosis subgroup J (ALV-J) antibodies was 13.46% (7/52), while ALV-A/B and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) antibodies were not detectable. The DF-1 cells inoculated by virus extracted from liver samples from 24 infected chickens were cultured and the group-specific antigen (GSA) was identified by ELISA. All samples were positive for ALV, which was further identified as ALV-J by immunofluorescence assay (IFA). PCR analysis revealed that three isolates of ALV-J proviral sequence were close to the HPRS-103 prototype strain and other Chinese field strains isolated in recent years, while one isolate (DP01) had a lower homology with them. This is the first report that ALV-J infection caused the simultaneous occurrence of haemangiomas, leiomyosarcoma and myeloma in a commercial layer flock.

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Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Chang Liu
Lei Ren
Kristian Rotaru
Xufeng Liu
Kuiliang Li
Wei Yang
Ye Li
Xinyi Wei
Murat Yücel
, and
Lucy Albertella



Existing research has demonstrated that problematic smartphone use (PSU) may reflect a composition of heterogeneous symptoms, with individual PSU symptoms uniquely related to predisposing variables. The Big Five personality traits represent one of the most frequently examined predisposing variables in relation to PSU. However, no studies to date have examined the trait-to-symptom association between the Big Five personality traits and PSU. Using a network analysis approach, we aimed to understand: 1) specific pathways linking each of the Big Five personality traits to PSU symptoms and 2) the bridging effects of each Big Five personality trait on the PSU symptom cluster.


A regularised graphical Gaussian model was estimated among 1,849 Chinese university students. PSU symptoms were assessed with items from the Problematic Smartphone Use Scale. Facets of the Big Five personality traits were assessed with the subscales of the Chinese Big Five Personality Inventory-15. An empirical index (i.e., bridge expected influence) was used to quantify bridge nodes.


Results revealed specific and distinct pathways between the Big Five personality traits and PSU symptoms (e.g., Neuroticism-Escapism/Avoidance, Conscientiousness-Preoccupation and Extraversion-Escapism/Avoidance). Further, Neuroticism showed the highest positive bridge centrality among the Big Five personality traits, while Conscientiousness had the highest negative bridge centrality.

Discussion and conclusions

The current study provided direct empirical evidence concerning specific pathways between the Big Five personality traits and PSU symptoms and highlighted the influential role of Neuroticism and Conscientiousness as potential targets for early detection and treatment of PSU.

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