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  • Author or Editor: X. L. Tan x
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The coding sequence of starch branching enzyme I gene (SBEI) of 30 rice varieties from China, Laos and Thailand were cloned. All thirty sequences contain 2,463 bp and 14 exons and encode for 820 amino acids. Three sites of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) A < C, T < C, and T < C were found at positions 1,107, 2,156 and 2,271 in Exon with 6, 13 and 14 respectively. The SNPs at position 1,107 A < C and position 2,271 T < C were silent mutations. The SNP at position 2,156 T < C was a missense mutation and induced a mutation from valine (GTG) to alanine (GCG). Three haplotypes A/T/T, C/T/C and C/C/C were observed. The phylogenetic analysis of 81 SBEI CDS sequences, out of which 30 are from this study and 51 are from previous, classifies them into 2 major groups using 4 sequences as outgroup. The group of monocot comprised of rice, barley, wheat, sorghum whereas maize and the group of dicot comprised of potato, cassava, poplar, Chinese chestnut, bean, legumes and apple. The group of rice SBEI CDS was a major clade in monocot group with high bootstrap value. SBEI gene of rice from China, Laos and Thailand, wheat, apple and poplar contain 14 exons while SBEI gene of rice from Japan and Korea contained only 12 exons. The GC content of SBEI gene of rice varieties was lower than that of wheat and apple but higher than that of poplar.

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This study was to examine the effects of four fungal polysaccharides, namely exo-polysaccharide (EPS), water-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (WPS), sodium hydroxideextracted mycelia polysaccharide (SPS), and hydrochloric-extracted mycelia polysaccharide (APS) obtained from the endophytic fungus Bionectra pityrodes Fat6, on the sprout growth and flavonoids production of Fagopyrum tataricum. Without obvious changes in the appearance of the sprouts, the exogenous polysaccharide elicitors notably stimulated the sprout growth and functional metabolites accumulation, and the stimulation effect was mainly depended on the polysaccharide species along with its treatment dose. With application of 150 mg/l of EPS, 150 mg/l of WPS and 200 mg/l of SPS, the total rutin and quercetin yield of buckwheat sprouts was effectively increased to 49.18 mg/(100 sprouts), 50.54 mg/(100 sprouts), and 52.27 mg/(100 sprouts), respectively. That was about 1.57- to 1.66-fold in comparison with the control culture of 31.40 mg/(100 sprouts). Moreover, the present study revealed the accumulation of bioactive flavonoids resulted from the stimulation of the phenylpropanoid pathway by fungal polysaccharide treatments. It could be an efficient strategy for improving the nutritional and functional quality of tartary buckwheat sprouts applied with specific fungal elicitors.

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