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  • Author or Editor: Y. Jiang x
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In the natural populations of common wheat landrace Kaixianluohanmai, there was a phKL gene which promotes homoeologous pairing of wheat-alien hybrids. In the present study, the effects of phKL gene on crossability and homoeologous pairing of Triticum aestivum × Psathyrostachys huashanica Keng ex Kuo hybrids were comparatively analyzed. The crossability of the hybrid between Sichuan wheat landrace Kaixianluohanmai and P. huashanica was highest in all the hybrid combinations with 3.18%. The hybrids T. aestivum (Kaixianluohanmai) × P. huashanica showed a pairing configuration of 21.70 univalents + 2.68 rod bivalents + 0.34 ring bivalents + 0.06 trivalents + 0.02 quadrivalents and 3.54 chiasma per PMC at MI. However, the chiasma in hybrids of CS, CS ph1b , CS ph2a and CS ph2b with P. huashanica was 0.56, 1.90, 0.87 and 0.60, respectively. Compared with the hybrids of CS, CS ph1b , CS ph2a and CS ph2b with P. huashanica , a significant increase in the chiasma of homoeologous pairing was observed in the hybrids of T. aestivum (Kaixianluohanmai) × P. huashanica . The effects were shown in the increment of rod bivalents, ring bivalents and trivalents and reduction of univalents. The results indicated that phKL showed a higher effect on promoting homoeologous pairing than ph1 and ph2 in T. aestivum × P. huashanica . The wheat landrace Kaixianluohanmai with phKL gene is probably a more desirable material for alien gene transferring than Ph2 -deficiency lines.

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To study the development of starch granules in polyploid wheats, we investigated the expression of starch synthetic genes between the synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1, its parents T. turgidum AS2255 and diploid Ae. tauschii AS60. The synthetic hexaploid wheat SHW-L1 showed significantly higher starch content and grain weight than its parents. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that SHW-L1 rapidly developed starch granules than AS2255 and AS60. The amount of B-type granule in AS60 was less than that in SHW-L1 and AS2255. RT-qPCR result showed that the starch synthetic genes AGPLSU1, AGPLSU2, AGPSSU1, AGPSSU2, GBSSI, SSIII, PHO1 and PHO2 expressed at earlier stages with larger quantity in SHW-L1 than in its parents during wheat grain development. The expression of the above mentioned genes in AS60 was slower than in SHW-L1 and AS2255. The expression pattern of starch synthase genes was also associated with the grain weight and starch content in all three genotypes. The results suggested that the synthetic hexaploid wheat inherited the pattern of starch granule development and starch synthase gene expression from tetraploid parent. The results suggest that tetraploid wheat could plays more important role for starch quality improvement in hexaploid wheat.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: W. Xue, A. Gianinetti, Y. Jiang, Z. Zhan, L. Kuang, G. Zhao, J. Yan, and J. Cheng

The cereal endosperm provides nutrients for seedling growth. The effects of seed components in seedling establishments under salt stress are, however, not yet fully explored. In this study, 60 barley recombinant inbred lines derived from Lewis × Karl cross were grown in four different environments, and the seed contents of starch, total soluble protein, phytate, total phenolics, total flavonoids and total inorganic phosphorus were determined in the harvested grains. Seeds of each line from the four environments were also assayed for seedling growth under saline treatments from 0 to 400 mM NaCl. Root and shoot lengths after 7 days decreased with increasing salt concentration. Correlations between seed components and either root or shoot length were established across the four seed sources. ANOVA showed a significant environment/source effect for both seed components and seedling growth, although the latter was less affected by the seed-production environment. Modeling seedling length across multiple salinities for each seed source showed that the environment with the most saline-tolerant root-growth curve was that associated the highest seed phosphorus content. Correlations between seed components and seedling growth traits highlighted phytate and total inorganic phosphorus as key components for seedling growth under moderate salinities. Seed phytate contents benefited seedling growth, even at high salinities, suggesting an additional role for this seed component under stressful growth conditions, possibly linked to its potential function as an osmolyte source.

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Numerous studies showed that lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) play important roles in flower, development, cuticular wax deposition and pathogen responses; however, their roles in abiotic stresses are relatively less reported. This study characterized the function of a maize LTP gene (ZmLTP3) during drought stress. ZmLTP3 gene was transferred into maize inbred line Jing2416; subsequently the glyphosate and drought tolerance of the over-expression (OE) lines were analyzed. Analysis showed that OE lines could significantly enhance drought tolerance. Transgenic maize lines OE6, OE7 and OE8 showed lower cell membrane damage, higher chlorophyll contents, higher protective enzymes activities, better growth and development under drought condition. The results strongly indicated that overexpression of ZmLTP3 could increase drought tolerances in maize.

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Chinese endemic wheat landraces possess unique morphological features and desirable traits, useful for wheat breeding. It is important to clarify the relationship among these landraces. In this study, 21 accessions of the four Chinese endemic wheat landrace species were investigated using single-copy genes encoding plastid Acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc-1) and 3-phosphoglycerate kinase (Pgk-1) in order to estimate their phylogenetic relationship. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using maximum parsimony (MP), maximum likelihood (ML) and Bayesian, and TCS network and gene flow values. The A and B genome sequences from the Pgk-1 loci indicated that three accessions of Triticum petropavlovskyi were clustered into the same subclade, and the T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and the Sichuan white wheat accessions were grouped into a separate subclade. Based on the Acc-1 gene, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense were grouped into one subclade in the A genome; the B genome from T. petropavlovskyi and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum, and the Sichuan white wheat complex and T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum were grouped in the same clades. The D genome of T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense clustered with T. petropavlovskyi. Our findings suggested that (1) T. petropavlovskyi is distantly related to the Sichuan white wheat complex; (2) T. petropavlovskyi, T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum and T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense are closely related; (3) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum is closely related to T. aestivum ssp. yunnanense and the Sichuan white wheat complex; and (4) T. aestivum ssp. tibetanum may be an ancestor of Chinese endemic wheat landraces.

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Aegilops sharonensis (Sharon goatgrass) is a valuable source of novel high molecular weight glutenin subunits, resistance to wheat rust, powdery mildew, and insect pests. In this study, we successfully hybridized Ae. sharonensis as the pollen parent to common wheat and obtained backcross derivatives. F1 intergeneric hybrids were verified using morphological observation and cytological and molecular analyses. The phenotypes of the hybrid plants were intermediate between Ae. sharonensis and common wheat. Observations of mitosis in root tip cells and meiosis in pollen mother cells revealed that the F1 hybrids possessed 28 chromosomes. Chromosome pairing at metaphase I of the pollen mother cells in the F1 hybrid plants was low, and the meiotic configuration was 25.94 I + 1.03 II (rod). Two pairs of primers were screened out from 150 simple sequence repeat markers, and primer WMC634 was used to identified the presence of the genome of Ae. sharonensis. Sequencing results showed that the F1 hybrids contained the Ssh genome of Ae. sharonensis. The sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis profile showed that the alien high molecular weight glutenin subunits of Ae. sharonensis were transferred into the F1 and backcross derivatives. The new wheat-Ae. sharonensis derivatives that we have produced will be valuable for increasing resistance to various diseases of wheat and for improving the quality of bread wheat.

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Genetic structure of 142 parent lines of sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] was analyzed using model-based approach based on SSR markers. Forty-one selected from 103 SSR markers were used to analyze the parent lines, which generated 189 alleles revealed by each marker ranging from 2 to 11 with an average of 4.6 per marker. The polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.543 with a range of 0.089 to 0.850. All the parent lines were assigned to 7 subgroups, named Kafir, Kaoliang, Feterita, Shallu, Hegari, Milo and Durra. Parent lines without clear pedigree record were clustered into their corresponding groups, and genetic components of each line were estimated by Q-values. Information of this study would be useful for breeders to conclude their genetic background and select appropriate parents for germplasm improvement and hybrid breeding, and thus improve the efficiency of breeding programs.

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Present research on prebiotics focuses on either polysaccharides or polyphenols. This study compared the individual and combined impact of polysaccharide, quercetin, and gallic acid (GA) treatment on three human faecal strains. In vitro pure culturing and correlation analysis confirmed that the growth of both beneficial microbe B. longum subsp. longum (0.695, 0.205: R2, slope, respectively) and pathogenic C. perfringens (0.712, 0.085: R2, slope, respectively) increased due to polysaccharide treatment, and only GA treatment would inhibit C. perfringens (0.789, –0.165: R2, slope, respectively) growth. In vivo studies also revealed that genome copies of Bifidobacterium increased and C. perfringens decreased in the faeces, when a blend of the three nutrients rather than single polysaccharide or polyphenols were fed to rats. These data suggested that combined prebiotic treatment improved human faecal strain composition better than single treatment.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors: S. Wang, D. Chen, G. Guo, T. Zhang, S. Jiang, X. Shen, D. Perovic, S. Prodanovic, and Y. Yan

In this work, 9 novel LMW-GS genes (6 LMW-m and 3 LMW-i type) from 4 diploid and 1 tetraploid Aegilops species were amplified and cloned by allelic-specific PCR. Analysis of the deduced amino acid sequences showed that 7 and 2 LMW-GS had 9 and 7 cysteines, respectively. Four LMW-m type subunits genes had an extra cysteine at the C-terminal III, which could form intermolecular disulphide bonds to extend the chains, and therefore would facilitate to form larger gluten polymers. This suggested that these genes are expected to be used as candidate genes for wheat quality improvement. The correlation between specific N-terminal sequences and a decapeptide deletion in the C-terminal II in LMW-GS encoded by D genome was found. Particularly, if LMW-GS possessed a METRCIPG-N-terminal beginning sequences and a decapeptide (LGQCSFQQPQ) deletion in the C-terminal II, they could be encoded by D genome.

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Acta Alimentaria
Authors: M.Y. Jiang, Z.R. Wang, K.W. Chen, J.Q. Kan, K.T. Wang, Zs. Zalán, F. Hegyi, K. Takács, and M.Y. Du

After suffering from mechanical injury and fungal infection, grapes are perishable. Botrytis cinerea, the causal agent of gray mould, is a critical pathogen for grapes. In this study, the inhibitory effect of Pseudomonas fluorescens on the formation of gray mould on grapes during the postharvest storage was investigated on “Kyoho” grape. The results suggest that a living cell suspension of P. fluorescens significantly inhibited spore germination of B. cinerea, and significantly reduced the incidence of grape gray mould. Moreover, compared with the control, the fruit inoculated with P. fluorescens had elevated activities of polyphenol oxidase (PPO), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), chitinase (CHI), and β-1,3-glucanase (GLU). Increase in enzyme activity correlated with enhanced host resistance. In addition, there was little difference in storage quality between the treated group and control group, indicating no adverse effects of the induced defence response on fruit quality.

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