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Background and aims

Although smartphone use brings many benefits for adolescents, it is also associated with many serious health problems. This study examined the relationship between problematic smartphone use (PSU) and clinical health symptoms (e.g., body dysfunction) and the mediating effects of sleep quality on this relationship in adolescents.

Methods

Participants in this cross-sectional survey were 686 middle- and high-school students (girls = 55.7%, M age = 12.98 ± 1.38 years). Participants completed self-report measures of PSU, sleep quality, and physical symptoms. Correlation analyses and structural equation modeling between adolescents’ PSU and the variables of interest were conducted.

Results

This study indicated that there was a significant positive correlation between PSU and health symptoms. Furthermore, sleep quality mediated the relationship between PSU and health symptoms.

Discussion and conclusions

Findings suggest that to promote health and wellness in adolescents, individuals should be encouraged to place boundaries on smartphone use, especially at bedtime. Reducing adolescents’ exposure to smartphone use in this way may hold promise for improving the efficacy of PSU prevention efforts for adolescents.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

The working memory (WM) ability of internet addicts and the topology underlying the WM processing in internet addiction (IA) are poorly understood. In this study, we employed a graph theoretical framework to characterize the topological properties of the IA brain network in the source cortical space during WM task.

Methods

A sample of 24 subjects with IA and 23 matched healthy controls (HCs) performed visual 2-back task. Exact Low Resolution Electromagnetic Tomography was adopted to project the pre-processed EEG signals into source space. Subsequently, Lagged phase synchronization was calculated between all pairs of Brodmann areas, the graph theoretical approaches were then employed to estimate the brain topological properties of all participants during the WM task.

Results

We found better WM behavioral performance in IA subjects compared with the HCs. Moreover, compared to the HC group, more integrated and hierarchical brain network was revealed in the IA subjects in alpha band. And altered regional centrality was mainly resided in frontal and limbic lobes. In addition, significant relationships between the IA severity and the significant altered graph indices were found.

Conclusions

In conclusion, these findings provide evidence to support the notion that altered topological configuration may underline changed WM function observed in IA.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Mobile phone addiction (MPA) is emerging among adolescents, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic. Nevertheless, there is a dearth of knowledge regarding the correlation between MPA and suicide behaviors and its mechanism. The objective of the current study is exploring the direct effect of MPA on suicide behaviors and the indirect effect through poor sleep quality.

Methods

A total of 18,900 Chinese adolescents aged 12 to 18 were recruited via a multi-stage cluster sampling method.

Results

The prevalence of MPA and poor sleep quality was 26.2 and 23.1%, respectively. During the past year, 24.4% participants were involved in suicide behaviors. Specifically, suicide ideators, suicide planners, and suicide attempters were 10.7, 8.4, and 5.3%, respectively. Particularly, rural females had the highest prevalence of suicide behaviors, MPA, and poor sleep quality. Logistic regression analysis showed that MPA was significantly associated with suicide ideators (OR = 1.22, 95% CI: 1.09–1.37, p < 0.001) and planners (OR = 1.18, 95% CI: 1.04–1.34, p < 0.05), but not for suicide attempters (p > 0.05). Structural equation modelling demonstrated that MPA had direct effect on suicide behaviors (β = 0.145, 95% CI = 0.127–0.160), and poor sleep quality partially mediated the relationship (the mediating ratio was 46.7%). The mediating ratio of poor sleep quality was the highest in urban males.

Conclusions

MPA has both direct and indirect effects on suicide behaviors. For suicide prevention, limited mobile phone use and improvement sleep quality may be practical for adolescents. Additionally, more efforts of intervention could give priority to rural girls.

Open access

Background and aims

This large-scale study aimed to test (a) associations of problematic Internet use (PIU) and sleep disturbance with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among Chinese adolescents and (b) whether sleep disturbance mediates the association between PIU and suicidal behavior.

Methods

Data were drawn from the 2017 National School-based Chinese Adolescents Health Survey. A total of 20,895 students’ questionnaires were qualified for analysis. The Young’s Internet Addiction Test was used to assess PIU, and level of sleep disturbance was measured by the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index. Multilevel logistic regression models and path models were utilized in analyses.

Results

Of the total sample, 2,864 (13.7%) reported having suicidal ideation, and 537 (2.6%) reported having suicide attempts. After adjusting for control variables and sleep disturbance, PIU was associated with an increased risk of suicidal ideation (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.03−1.04) and suicide attempts (AOR = 1.03, 95% CI = 1.02−1.04). Findings of the path models showed that the standardized indirect effects of PIU on suicidal ideation (standardized β estimate = 0.092, 95% CI = 0.082−0.102) and on suicide attempts (standardized β estimate = 0.082, 95% CI = 0.068−0.096) through sleep disturbance were significant. Conversely, sleep disturbance significantly mediated the association of suicidal behavior on PIU.

Discussion and conclusions

There may be a complex transactional association between PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior. The estimates of the mediator role of sleep disturbance provide evidence for the current understanding of the mechanism of the association between PIU and suicidal behavior. Possible concomitant treatment services for PIU, sleep disturbance, and suicidal behavior were recommended.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Internet addiction (IA) is common among young students. This study aimed to examine the influence and mechanisms of IA and susceptible personality traits on the impact of suicidal ideation in adolescent students in China.

Methods

This cross-sectional study (09/2012–09/2015) used stratified cluster sampling with “school type” for stratification; 136,266 students from 63 schools completed the questionnaire. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate the effect of IA (Young's Internet Addiction Test) and susceptible personality (Barratt impulsiveness scale, Buss & Perry Aggression Questionnaire; and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire-R Short Scale) on suicidal ideation (Scale of Suicidal Ideation).

Results

Suicidal ideation was observed in 20,218 (14.77%) of the students, and IA was detected in 28,836 (21.16%) subjects. Compared with those without IA, students with IA had a higher prevalence of suicidal ideation (P < 0.0001). No planning impulsiveness had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation in the impulsive personality trait, while in the aggressive personality trait, hostility and self-aggression had a predictive effect on suicidal ideation (all P < 0.0001). High psychoticism and neuroticism were impact factors for suicidal ideation, but extroversion was a protective factor (all P < 0.0001).

Discussion

These results highlight the importance of assessing personality traits and reducing IA as a possible means of lessening suicidal ideation. Susceptible personality (such as high psychoticism, high neuroticism, and low extroversion) play a prominent role in influencing the probability of having suicidal behavior among those recently exposed to IA.

Conclusions

IA and susceptible personality traits were significantly correlated with suicidal and self-harm ideation among adolescent students.

Open access

Abstract

Background and aims

Adolescence is a period of high incidence of problematic smartphone use. Understanding the developmental trajectory of problematic smartphone use in adolescence and its influencing factors could guide the choice of timing for prevention and intervention. This study fitted the growth trajectory of problematic smartphone use among adolescents and examined its associations with the childhood family environment and concurrent parent–child relationships.

Methods

Using a cohort sequential design, we investigated 2,548 Chinese adolescents and their parents three times in three years. Multiple group multiple cohort growth models were used to fit the growth trajectory.

Results

The quadratic growth trajectory of problematic smartphone use in adolescents aged 10–18 years showed a clear increasing trend, with a possible decreasing trend in late adolescence or early adulthood. Early life socioeconomic status, childhood family unpredictability, and the concurrent parent–child relationship had unique impacts on the development of problematic smartphone use during adolescence.

Discussion and conclusions

Early adolescence is a favorable time for problematic smartphone use prevention and intervention. A supportive family environment should be maintained throughout the different developmental stages of children and adolescents.

Open access
Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Authors:
Wei Hong
,
Peipeng Liang
,
Yu Pan
,
Jia Jin
,
Lijuan Luo
,
Ying Li
,
Chen Jin
,
Wanwan Lü
,
Min Wang
,
Yan Liu
,
Hui Chen
,
Huixing Gou
,
Wei Wei
,
Zhanyu Ma
,
Ran Tao
,
Rujing Zha
, and
Xiaochu Zhang

Abstract

Background and aims

Impaired value-based decision-making is a feature of substance and behavioral addictions. Loss aversion is a core of value-based decision-making and its alteration plays an important role in addiction. However, few studies explored it in internet gaming disorder patients (IGD).

Methods

In this study, IGD patients (PIGD) and healthy controls (Con-PIGD) performed the Iowa gambling task (IGT), under functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We investigated group differences in loss aversion, brain functional networks of node-centric functional connectivity (nFC) and the overlapping community features of edge-centric functional connectivity (eFC) in IGT.

Results

PIGD performed worse with lower average net score in IGT. The computational model results showed that PIGD significantly reduced loss aversion. There was no group difference in nFC. However, there were significant group differences in the overlapping community features of eFC1. Furthermore, in Con-PIGD, loss aversion was positively correlated with the edge community profile similarity of the edge2 between left IFG and right hippocampus at right caudate. This relationship was suppressed by response consistency3 in PIGD. In addition, reduced loss aversion was negatively correlated with the promoted bottom-to-up neuromodulation from the right hippocampus to the left IFG in PIGD.

Discussion and conclusions

The reduced loss aversion in value-based decision making and their related edge-centric functional connectivity support that the IGD showed the same value-based decision-making deficit as the substance use and other behavioral addictive disorders. These findings may have important significance for understanding the definition and mechanism of IGD in the future.

Open access