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Co-governance Based on Abilities and Relations

An Explanation of Governance Structure of Farmer Cooperatives in Zhejiang Province, China

Society and Economy
Authors:
Zu-hui Huang
,
Xu-chu Xu
,
Yu Song
, and
Yu Song

The institutional arrangement of farmer cooperatives in the coastal areas of east China is characterized by a distinct shareholding from the very beginning. After describing some basic facts of institutional arrangement of farmer cooperatives in Zhejiang, the paper puts forward a framework from perspectives such as institutions, norms, trust and commitment for studying the residual control rights of cooperatives. The authors not only point out that the governance structures of farmer cooperatives in the coastal areas of China are the co-governance structure based on the abilities and relations, but also analyze the unique roles of abilities and relations in constructing the governance structure of farmer cooperative in China.

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Abstract  

The extraction behavior of N,N,N',N'-tetrabutylmalonamide (TBMA) employing toluene as diluent toward Dy(III) has been investigated. The effect of the concentrations of nitric acid, lithium nitrate and extractant and also of the temperature on the distribution ratio has been studied. The stoichiometry found for the Dy(III) extracted species suggests a structure such as Dy(NO3)3 .3TBMA. An attempt has been made to establish the structure of the isolated extracted species recurring to the data of IR.

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Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry
Authors:
Zhenrong Lu
,
Yuanchen Ding
,
Ying Xu
,
Shuhua Chen
, and
Yunpeng Yu

Abstract  

The thermal behaviors of [1,1,1-trifluro-3-(2-thenoyl)-acetonato]copper(II) Cu(TTA)2 and its adducts with pyridine Cu(TTA)2(Py)2, 2,2'-bipyridine Cu(TTA)2(Bpy), quinoline Cu(TTA)2(Ql)2, and dimethyl sulfoxide Cu(TTA)2(DMS) in a nitrogen atmosphere were studied under the non-isothermal conditions by simultaneous TG-DTG-DSC technique. The results showed that the evolution of the solvent molecules generally proceeded before the release of TTA in different ways according to their structures. The Cu(TTA)2(Bpy) exhibited a unique decomposition pattern due to its distinctive structure. The dependences of activation energy on extent of reaction for all the stage of each compound were determined by using an isoconversional method, Flynn-Wall-Ozawa equation, which show E values varied with reaction progress, indicating the complexity of these decomposition reactions. In addition, the values of activation energy E for TTA molecules evolution are generally higher than that for the solvent molecules release.

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Abstract  

The photocatalytic properties of MoS2 samples including nano-ball, nano-slice and bulk 2H-MoS2 were evaluated and compared with that of the anatase TiO2 using the degradation reaction of methyl orange under visible light. The catalytic behaviors of the samples were also characterized using transmission electron microscopy, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and FTIR spectroscopy. The results show that the bulk MoS2 and the anatase TiO2 were almost inactive under visible light. The nano-slice presented the most positive catalytic effect because it has a wide absorption at 400–700 nm and a high BET surface area. Though the BET surface area of the nano-ball was lower than that of the nano-slice, it has an active curved basal surface and presented a catalytic activity close to that of the nano-slice. Moreover, the MoS2 nano-slice catalyst could be conveniently regenerated after filtration and drying.

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A continuous-flow reactor (Corning G1 reactor) was hereby introduced for Fischer indole synthesis of 3-methylindole by reaction of phenyl hydrazines and propylaldehyde. Stoichiometric Lewis acid, ZnCl2, was supplied as catalyst as well as remover of NH3 which generated during the indole ring formation. Ionic liquid ([EMIM][BF4]) was employed as solvent according to its high-temperature tolerance and good product distribution. After a straightforward extraction process, 3-methylindole could be obtained in a 95.3% yield (96.0% purity) under optimized conditions. Ionic liquid (IL) was then recovered by another extraction process, and the recovered IL acted nearly as efficiently as new IL for this Fischer indole reaction.

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Abstract  

The heat capacities of berberine sulphate [(C20H18NO4)2SO43H2O] were measured from 80 to 390 K by means of an automated adiabatic calorimeter. Smoothed heat capacities, H T-H 298.15 and S T-S 298.15 were calculated. The loss of crystalline water started at about 339.30.2 K, and its peak temperature was 365.80.6 K. The peak temperature of decomposition for berberine sulphate was at about 391.40.4 K by DSC curve. TG-DTG analysis of this material was carried out in temperature range from 310 to 970 K. TG and DSC curves show that there is no melting in the whole heating process.

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Abstract  

23-Hydroxybetulinic acid (23-HBA) is the efficient antitumor compound extracted from the roots of a Chinese Medicinal Herb, Pulsatilla chinensis (Bge) Regel. To evaluate the effect of radioiodination on cytotoxicity, 23-HBA was radioiodinated with 125I. 125I-23-HBA could be prepared in high yields and good radiochemical purity and was characterized using reverse phase HPLC. In ICR mice bearing Liver Cancer HepA tumor, 125I-23-HBA showed a tumor uptake of 2.1% ID/g at 2 h p.i. and 0.15% ID/g at 48 h p.i on i.v. injection. When injected intratumorally, greater tumor uptake and retention was observed (20% ID/g at 2 h p.i. and 4.6% ID/g at 48 h p.i. respectively).

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Abstract  

Measurements of 222Rn (“radon”) in the environment are important in the geosciences and radiation-protection fields. We demonstrate here a simple laboratory-based calibration system to evaluate the efficiency of radon detectors with a reproducibility of about ±2%. The system uses a closed-loop air circulation design with 226Ra adsorbed onto MnO2-impregnated fiber as a radon source. Two RAD7 radon detectors (Durridge Co., Inc.) that were precisely calibrated at Durridge’s in-house calibration facility are used as secondary standards. By parallel analysis of the radon-enriched air within the closed loop, the test RAD7s are assigned a calibration coefficient to be applied to future measurements. We also performed a side-by-side intercomparison with two RAD7s in a high-radon natural environmental setting (limestone cave in Florida) that produced comparable results.

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Abstract  

The aim of this study was to examine the radioiodinating condition of betulinic acid and understand the possibility of 131I–betulinic acid (131I–BA) as a potential tumor radiotherapy agent through in vitro uptake and in vivo biodistribution studies 131I–BA was prepared by the reaction of betulinic acid with Na131I in the presence of hydrogen peroxide, and then purified by HPLC. The labeling yield was about 80%, and the radiochemical purity was greater than 95%. 131I–BA was found to be stable at 4 °C in saline containing 1% ethanol. In vitro studies showed that 131I–betulinic acid accumulated in the cancer cell lines (BEL-7402 and NCI-H446) in comparison with free 131I. In vivo biodistribution study in KM mice bearing HepA tumor showed that 131I–BA stayed longer time in tumors than free 131I. A significant differences were seen in tumor/muscle ratio at 4 h postinjection between 131I–BA and free 131I. In vivo and in vitro studies showed the higher fraction of 131I–BA can be utilized for therapy and a higher dose will be delivered per targeting event. 131I–BA is a promising radiopharmaceutical in nuclear medicine, especially for hepatocellular tumor targeted radionuclide brachytherapy.

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Cereal Research Communications
Authors:
Hongxiang M
,
Jinbao Yao
,
Miaoping Zhou
,
Xu Zhang
,
Lijuan Ren
,
Giuhong Yu
, and
Weizhong Lu

Wheat Fusarium head blight (FHB) may cause serious losses in grain yield and quality in China. More than 7 million hectares which approximately accounts for 25% of the total areas in China is infected by the disease. The cultivation of wheat varieties with resistance to Fusarium head blight is recognized as one of the most important components to diminish losses due to this disease. Chinese wheat breeders have commenced the research on FHB since 1950s. Wheat cultivars with improved FHB resistance were developed through conventional breeding. Some famous resistant varieties such as Sumai 3, Yangmai 158 and Ning 7840 were released from Jiangsu Academy of Agricultural Sciences, these varieties were widely applied in wheat production and breeding programs. Significant achievements concerning molecular mapping and marker assisted selection have been made in the past decade. The major QTL on chromosome 3BS was identified and located in the same region on chromosome 3BS in Sumai 3, Ning 894037, Wangshuibai, and Chinese Spring. Using SSR marker in this QTL region for assisted selection, some lines with the same resistance to FHB were obtained. New STS markers and SSCP markers were developed and will be tested for the efficiency of MAS. However, further achievements are still hindered by a number of constraints. More FHB resistance genetic resources from landrace in middle to lower reaches of Yangtze River are necessary to be used for improving FHB resistant. The genetic mechanism of the varieties contributing the resistance to improved cultivars is needed to be understood. Development of functional markers for FHB is discussed.

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