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The purpose of this study was to compare the physiological and the acid-base balance response to running at various slope angles. Ten healthy men 22.3 ± 1.56 years old participated in the study. The study consisted of completing the graded test until exhaustion and three 45-minute runs. For the first 30 minutes, runs were performed with an intensity of approximately 50% VO2max, while in the final 15 minutes the slope angle of treadmill was adjusted (0°; +4.5°; −4.5°), and a fixed velocity of running was maintained. During concentric exercise, a significant increase in the levels of physiological indicators was reported; during eccentric exercise, a significant decrease in the level of the analyzed indicators was observed. Level running did not cause significant changes in the indicators of acid-base balance. The indicators of acid-base balance changed significantly in the case of concentric muscle work (in comparison to level running) and after the eccentric work, significant and beneficial changes were observed in most of the biochemical indicators. The downhill run can be used for a partial regeneration of the body during exercise, because during this kind of effort an improvement of running economy was observed, and this type of effort did not impair the acid-base balance of body.

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The aim of our study was to compare the indicators of starting speed, anaerobic endurance and power in women as well as men, and to investigate whether the values of these indicators differ in women during the follicular and luteal phases of the menstrual cycle. The studied group included 16 men and 16 women. The subjects performed the 20-second maximal cycling sprint test. The men performed the test twice at 14-day intervals. The women undertook the test 4 times: twice during the middle of follicular phase and twice in the middle of luteal phase in separate menstrual cycles. Hormonal changes during the menstrual cycle do not influence anaerobic performance, starting speed or anaerobic endurance in women. Anaerobic performance in men is higher than in women with similar aerobic performance expressed as VO2max/LBM (lean body mass). A lower power decrease with time was noted for women than men, with a similar time of maintaining power in both groups. This is evidence of women’s better anaerobic endurance compared to men. At the same time, the men had significantly better starting speed rates than women.

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The aim of the study was to determine whether creatine malate (CML) supplementation results in similar ergogenic effect in sprinters and long-distance runners. The other goal was to compare changes in body composition, physical performance and hormone levels after six-week training in athletes, divided into subgroups supplemented with creatine malate or taking placebo.


Six-week supplementation combined with physical training induced different effects in athletes. Significantly higher increases in relative and absolute peak power and total work (p < 0.05) were found in sprinters compared to other groups. Except for growth hormone, post-exercise venous blood serum hormone levels exhibited no statistically significant differences in athletes. After CML loading period, a significant increase in growth hormone was found in the group of sprinters.


A significant ergogenic effect was found in sprinters, which was reflected by the increase in anaerobic exercise indices and morphological indices and elevated growth hormone level, after graded exercise testing. The significant increase in the distance covered during graded test was only observed in supplemented long-distance runners, whereas no significant changes in maximal oxygen uptake, relative peak power and relative total work were noticed. This could be caused by later anaerobic threshold appearance in exercise test to exhaustion.

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